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【商务英语】合同中常用词(三)

来源:沃尔得国际英语青岛中心编辑:佚名发布时间:2014-11-20
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3. Easily-confused Words易混淆的词

你觉着你的月薪应该是多少呢?测试你的英语水平!

国际商务合同中还有一些易混淆的词,这些词中有的书写虽基本相同,内容却有很大区别;有的可以表达同一概念,但使用场合有别;还有的词语由于发生变形,产生了权利义务的改变等。因此,对于易混淆的词语,译者一定要运用综合分析判断的方法,勤查专业工具书,从共性中发现其个性,切忌生搬硬套,囫囵吞枣。易混淆词的处理,应注意以下几点:

1) Attention to Meaning注意书写基本近似,但意义不同的词

英文中有许多词在书写上基本上相似,但在内容上有很大的区别,特别是一些短语,更换一个介词或添加一个冠词,其内容就会有很大的区别。这些词或短语一定要引起译者的足够重视。

「例24」

(1) The Party B shall request his bankers to open an Irrevocable letter of credit in Party A's favour upon receipt of Party A's Confirmation of this order.

一但收到甲方关于此项订货的确认后,乙方便要求其银行开立以甲方为受益人的信用证。

句中的短语in one's favour意思为“以……为受益人”。

(2)Our goods that we offer you are much in favour on the European Continent.

我方向你方报盘的货物,在欧洲大陆颇受好评。

该句中的in favour与上句的in one's favour只相差一个名词所有格形式或形容词性物主代词,但意义却大不相同。in favour在本句中的意思是“受赏识,受好评”。

「例25」

(1) The Foreign Party shall furnish to the Joint Venture Company all the technical data necessary to ensure the effective operation of the machinery.

外方必须向合资公司提供一切必要的技术数据,以**机械设备的正常运行。

句中的动词ensure意思为“**,担保”,其书写与insure只相差一个字母,但意义却完全不同。又如:

(2) The Seller have insured the goods FPA and against War Risk at the rate of 0.5%for the sum of USD 36,000 with the Insurance company.

卖方已为该货物向保险公司投保平安险和战争险,费率0.5%,投保额为36,000美元。

该句中的insure表示to make a contract that promises to pay sb an amount of money in case of accident,injury,death or damage or loss of sth.

「例26」

(1) Up to now we have not heard anything from them about the order in question.

到目前为止,我方仍未接到他们关于该定货的任何消息。

句中的in question意思为“正在被谈起的”,经常译成“该”,如:the Contract in question(该合同)。

(2)It is obviously out of question to effect the shipment in June.

很明显,6月份交货不成问题。

句中的out of question意思为: “毫无疑问”或“没有问题”。

(3)The prices shown in price-lists and catalogues shall be deemed to be the rock-bottom prices and any further reductions is out of the question.

价目单和商品目录中标明的价格,应视为**低价格,不会再次减价。

该句中的out of the question与上句中的out of question只相差一个定冠词,但其意义却完全相反。前者表示impossible,而后者却表示no problem.

「例27」

(1) The Borrower agrees to transfer t0 the lender the right to accept and substitute other assigned accounts subsequent to this date, in lieu of accounts this day assigned.

借款人同意向出借人转让收取和兑取自即日起的以后各项应收账款的权利,用以取代今天的各项应收账款。

句中的lieu意思为“代替”,如:accept a cheque in lieu of cash(接受支票替代现金)。

(2) Machinery shall become the sole property of the Joint Venture Company, free and clear of all liens, charges and claims of any kind whatsoever.

机械设备应成为合资公司的独占财产,不存在任何留置权,不存在任何费用,索赔等情况。

该句中的lien与上句中的lieu书写非常近似,但lien的意思为right to keep sb's property until a debt owed in connection with it,法律上称“留置权”,属担保方式的一种。

2) Attention to the Relation

注意同一概念、但表达不同权利义关系的词

合同英语中的某些单词,单独地看,其概念是一致的。但在条款的具体应用中,其表现的权利义务关系和用词的规范与否是不同的。

「例28」

(1) The Contract Price set forth in this Contract shall not include any withholding tariff and any charges imposed on the contractor by the government in New Zealand.

原译文:

在合同中规定的合同价格,不应包括新西兰政府向承包人征收的扣交税金和任何费用。

该译文中的“税金”应改为“关税”。tariff在表示“税”时,主要用于“关税”,即:a schedule or system of duties imposed by a government on goods imported or exported at the rate of duty imposed in tariff.

(2) The China Corporation shall bear all relevant taxes and levies imposed upon the personnel by the Chinese Government, whereas the Employer shall bear the same imposed upon the personnel by the Government of the Project-host Country.

中国公司应负责交纳中国政府对人员所征收的一切税金;雇主应负责交纳项目所在国政府对人员所征缴的一切税金。

该句中出现了两个有关“税金”的单词,即taxes and levies.其中tax在表示“税”时,主要强调:money taken compulsorily by the government or by an official body to pay for government services; levy作为名词,主要表示一种“征税”的行为,即:money which is demanded and collected by the government or by an agency or by an official body.因此,句中的taxes and levies合在一起可理解为:(中国政府所征收的)“一切税金”。

(3)The prices quoted above do not include any taxes. duties, impost and any other charges of any kind which may be levied in China.

以上所指的价格并不包括在中国境内所征收的各种税款、关税、进口税以及其他各种费用。

该句中除taxes外,还出现两个表示“税”的单词,即duty 和impost.其中duty主要强调the tax imposed by a government on merchandise imported from another country,可理解为“关税”。但duty在表示“关税”时与tariff是有本质区别的,前者主要表示tax to be paid for importing,而后者除表示tax to be paid for importing外,还可以表示tax to be paid for exporting,所以,在翻译duty时,一般应结合上下文写成:“在某国内所征收的关税”;句中出现的另一个表示“税”的单词是impost,这个词纯粹表示“进口税”,但不一定是**海关所征的税。

「例29」

(1)合资各方的责任:

甲方责任:

1.办理为设立合资公司向中国有关主管部门申请批准,登记注册,领取营业执照等事宜;

2.……

乙方责任:

1.办理合资企业委托在中国境外选购机械设备等有关的事宜:

2.……

(1) Responsibilities of Each Party to the Joint Venture

Responsibility Of Party A:

1.Handling of approval. registration business license and other matters concerning the establishment of the Joint Venture Company from the relevant departments in charge in China.

2. ……。

Responsibility Of Party B:

1. Handling the matters entrusted by the Joint Venture Company, such as selecting and purchasing machinery and equipment outside China, etc.

2.……

英译该条款时,应首先确定和选择“责任”一词的英语表述。合同英语中经常出现的两个表示“责任”的单词,一个为liability,另一个为responsibility.这是两个极易混淆的词汇,

在表达当事人的责任时是共同的,但涉及到具体的权利义务时,两词是有严格区别的。

liability在表示责任时,主要强调两个方面:一方面指“赔偿责任”(being legally responsible for paying or damage or loss),如:The underwriters refused to take any liability for the losses(承包人对损失拒绝承担责任);另一方面指“债务责任‘(一般用复数形式liabilities),如:The Seller shall refund to the Buyer such amounts after paying all tax liabilities(在付清一切税款后,卖方须向买方偿还这些款项)。因此,”有限责任公司“常被译成limited liability company,表示a company where a member is responsible for repaying the company’s debts only up to the face value of the shares he owns.

responsibility在表示“责任”时,着重强调“职责、义务”(commitment or duty for which a party is responsible),如:The licensee shall assume full responsibility for the payment of all royalties(对于一切专利权使用费的支付事宜,许可证受让方应承担完全责任)。

由上面的分析和比较可见,以上句子中的“责任”显然是合同各方应履行的职责和义务。因此,应译为responsibility.

(2)任何一方当事人违反合同的赔偿责任,应相当于另一方因此所受到的损失,但不得超过违反合同的一方订立合同时应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。

The liability of a party to pay compensation for the breach of a contract shall be equal to the loss suffered by the other party as a consequence of the breach. However, such compensation may not exceed the loss, which the party responsible for the breach ought to have foreseen at the time of the conclusion of the contract as a possible consequence of a breach of contract.

该句中的“责任”明显是一种being legally responsible for paying loss,所以选择liability是合适的。

3) Attention to the Legal Expressions

注意表达不同法律关系但意义近似的词

某些表达当事人法律关系的汉语词或其近义词在不同的上下文中,其内涵不尽相同。把这些词译成英语时,必须认真研究分析,必要时应对合同中当事人约定的权利义务条件进行比较,选出**恰当的英语词汇。

「例30」

(1)由于发生地震、台风、水灾、火灾、战争及其他无法预见并且对其发生和后果均不能防止或避免的不可抗力事件,致使直接影响合同的履行或者不能按约定的条件履行时,遇有上述不可抗力事件的一方,应立即将事件情况书面通知对方,并在其后15天内,提供事件详情及全部或部分合同不能或需要延期履行的理由的有效证明文件,此项证明文件应由事件发生地区的公证机构出具。按照事件对履行合同影响的程度,由双方协商决定是否解除合同,或者部分免除履行合同的责任,或者延期履行合同。

原译文:

Should either of the parties of the Contract be prevented from executing the Contract by Force Majeure, such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire and war and other unforeseen events, and their happenings and consequences are unpreventable and unavoidable, the presented party shall notify the other party by a written notice without any delay, and within 15 days thereafter provide the detailed information of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by the relevant public notary organization for explaining the reason of its inability to execute or delay the execution of all or part of the Contract. Both parties shal1,through consultations, decide whether to terminate the Contract or to exempt the part of obligations for implementation of the Contract or whether to delay the execution of the Contract according to the effects of the events on the performance of the Contract.

该句子的英译文在表达原文内容上是没什么问题的,但是将句中的“解除合同”译成to terminate the contract有些不妥。因为,从法律意义上讲,to terminate the contract是指“终止合同”,而“终止合同”的法律行为,必须在出现了终止合同的法律事件后才能实行。按照《中华人民共和国合同法》的规定,“终止合同”的法定情形有七种(见《中华人民共和国合同法》第91条)。该条款主要说明的是,由于“不可抗力事件‘(Force Majeure Events)致使合同无法履行,这种事由不属于终止合同的条件,而属解除合同的条件。因此,”解除合同“应选用to rescind the Contract,这样符合法定解除合同的情形。另外,译文either of the parties of the Contract中的第二个介词of应换成to,译成:the parties to the Contract,因为to表示一种归属关系,即:”履行合同的双方当事人“。

(2)当事人一方有另一方不能履行合同的确切证据时,可以中止履行合同,但是应当通知另一方;当另一方对履行合同提供了充分的**时,应当履行合同。

原译文:

The Party shall terminate its performance of the contract if it has conclusive evidence that the other party is unable to perform the contract. However, It shall immediately inform the other party of such termination.

该句中的译者将“中止”误理解为“终止”,译成了to terminate its performance of the Contract,这是个原则性的错误。“中止”和“终止”在法律上均有“停止”的意思,但前者表示,因故暂停正在履行的合同,待造成中止的原因消除后,再恢复合同的履行,其英译应该是:to suspend its performance of the Contract;后者表示完全结束正在履行的合同,其英译文是 to terminate the Contract.

(3)乙方将其50万美元的定期存款单移交甲方占有,将该单证作为债权的质押凭证。

The Party B shall deliver his certificate of fixed deposits of USD 500, 000 to the Party A for possession and take the said fixed deposits as mortgage Of the obligatory right.

该句是一则借款合同中的担保条款。乙方将存款移交给甲方作为担保,属于担保方式中的“质押”,而且是一种“权利质押”。显然,译文中用mortgage表示“质押”是不能完全达意的。mortgage尽管也表示用财产担保,但这种担保方式是以不转移财产的占有向债权人担保;本款中的担保是以转移财产的占有向债权人作为担保,属于transfer of objects or documents to Creditor as security for a loan.因此,“质押”选用pledge 较妥,mortgage属于“抵押”的范畴。

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