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    § History – what worked in the past? Do decision makers have past successes to draw upon; are they willing to learn from their mistakes?
    § Ownership – is the organisation owned by a sole trade? Are there a small number of institutional shareholders or are there large numbers of small shareholders?
    3 Writers on culture
    There are three writers you need to have knowledge of: Schein, Handy and Hofstede.
    3.1 Schein
    Schein argues that the first leaders of a company create the culture of an organisation. Once the culture exists, the attributes/criteria for the later leaders are determined by the culture. Thus the link between culture and leadership is very strong.
    Schein further commented that it if leaders are to lead, it is essential that they understand the culture of the organisation. In order to try and define culture, Schein described three levels: