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端午节与伍子胥的传说

分类:英语口语 | 更新时间:2016-07-08 | 来源:转载

  Now is the Dragon Boat Festival, and the north is the custom of eating the dumplings, wearing Sachet, dragon boat racing in the south as well, such as drinking realgar wine. Bring Dragon Boat Festival, many people will think of the great poet Qu Yuan. However, the Suzhou people say, in fact, the Dragon Boat Festival is the first memorial of Wu.

  Minister Wu Wu is the Spring and Autumn Period, were members of the word Zixu, turned out to be the state of Chu. His father, the Prince of Chu Wu She is the Grand Tutor. 522 BC, king Ping of Chu construction is about to marry Prince spotted the Qinmu Gong's daughter, and a traitor Fei Wuji conspiracy, robbery scene staged farce son's wife. Finally, the king Ping of Chu reconvened the Prince built, and the instigation of the Fei Wuji, Wu She killed and Wu's brother Wu and the Wu family is still more than 100 ports.

  Country full of open-minded hatred of hate at home, Wu may not want to sit still. He fled in panic, all the way Elegy. "Wuyuechunqiu" records, an arrest warrant was issued to arrest Chu Wu, also sent troops to catch up. Wu Tai-line the river, going to Heaven and crying, legends are all white hair overnight. He later heard that Prince built in the Song, they found him defect to Wu.

  Wu's flight experience, is the most talked about novelist later material, which derived from the story, more to the list goes on.

  Wu Wu fled after begging in the streets of Wu. By Wu Guogong sub-light to see, recognize Wu he is famous, so quietly that he hired his hangers on.

  Light to win over to the son of Wu, the Wu for his plan to seize power a set of programs. Zhuan Zhu Wu Wangliao first with the assassination, so the son of light to the throne and become king lu; and then with the assassination of Liao's son to leave Qingji for consolidation of the country and the king lu; then they found military strategist Sun Wu, growth the State of Wu's military power.

  Lu king came to power, the very confidence of Wu, to ask him how Chengjiubaye. Wu said the first thing is the "phase soil water tasted like heaven and earth, making building cities." Pattern of Suzhou city in 2500 which lay for many years. Wu did not forget of course, revenge, lu nine break in one fell swoop Wu Jun, Chu Ying Du, Ping Wu dug tomb Bianshi three hundred, at a blood feud.

  Helv ascended the throne after the son of Fu Chai of Wu defeated in the Taihu Lake water forces more soldiers, more are scoring up a victory, retreated Goujian Kuaijishan. Gou hardships of the scheme hidden from Wu, the Northern Expedition loyal Qi Fu Chai of Wu heard the plan was shocked several times, is the advice of Fu Chai Yue scourge, to be eradicated as soon as possible. By this time, was proud of where the listening into the Wu Fu Chai, the home truths? Qi Guoxuan also deliberately sent his envoy to war. To the Qi Guoxuan Wu king that war would be his son actually "Tuogu" minister in Qi, that is treason! Wu is also a straightforward happens stubborn temper, he told himself after the death of Fu Chai, "Wu Death to the more" sense of foreboding. King was furious, "thanks to" the sword so that he committed suicide. Wu died furious and said: "After my death will be my eyes on the city of East Gate, the more I want to see how the soldiers to fight the country into the city." This angered the king did under even more, he sent the dead bodies into the river of Wu.

  Ben Wu Fu Jian Zixu death, with the flow into a Yang-Bo Narcissus. Southern Liang Daizong Howling's "Jingchu Chronicle", the first explicit reference to the victims of Wu's time is "May 5", from the beginning on this day the people of Soochow "in Jiang Su Tao Ying Tao of God," child sacrifice Wu Xu's souls, and this is the origin of dragon boat racing. Can be seen, the Dragon Boat Festival is the result of the first Wu ago. "Jingchu in mind," said the Dragon Boat Festival originated, they are more clear: "things in Zixu, none of Quping also."

  206 years after the death of Wu and his people with a Chu Yuan, once again, after being exiled grandson since Shen Miluo. The difference is that the two men: Qu Yuan in the case could drag on, he took the martyred; Wu survive in difficult circumstances, after the difficult, the last successful flight. More difference is that Wu is not only victory of flight, but also chose the revenge! Dragon Boat Festival to commemorate Qu Yuan, the final evolution of the festival, I am afraid because this is also the feudal rulers need is submissive, the need is "Jun called Chen Si Chen had to die" instead of resistance and revenge.

  Confucius said: "Jun-Jun, Chen Chen; Father Father, Son and Son." Means that the king should be like a monarch, minister to be like a minister. However, Confucius did not say if the "king not king", and ministers how to do? "By beam floating in the sea?" The key question is can often monarchy with "floating in the sea" is not free to courtiers ah! Mencius'd happy, pointedly said: "The king, as the minister as foe, as Chen Jun, such as autocrat!" Would be right for such a little taste. Results are the first Ming emperor ordered the "waste not worship", even tablets have been thrown out of the Confucian shrine.

  In short, the history of authoritarian monarchs do not like such people of Wu, they need people like Qu Yuan. They asked only signed between the monarch and his subjects unilateral "King contract" - I always have "faint" right, but you can only do "loyalty" obligation.

  Wu forgotten by history, Qu Yuan are much forward, one of the reasons, indeed intriguing. However, in Suzhou, 2500 years later, people have changed, Xumen has been stands. The Xumen the edge of the addition of a stone image of Wu, unaware of the vicissitudes of life with unlimited.

  People as a mirror, every Dragon Boat Festival, Wu's probably still a lot of people think!

  马上就是端午节了,北方的习俗是吃粽子、戴香囊,在南方还有赛龙舟、喝雄黄酒等。提起端午节,很多人都会想到大诗人屈原。但是,苏州人说,端午节其实最早祭奠的是伍子胥。

  伍子胥是春秋后期吴国大臣,名员,字子胥,原来是楚国人。他的父亲伍奢是楚国的太子太傅。公元前522年,楚平王看上了太子建即将迎娶的秦穆公的女儿,就和奸臣费无极合谋,上演了一幕强夺子妻的丑剧。最后,楚平王逼走了太子建,又在费无极的煽动下,杀了伍奢和伍子胥的大哥伍尚及伍家100多口。

  国恨家仇满襟怀,伍子胥可不愿坐以待毙。他仓皇出逃,一路悲歌。《吴越春秋》记载,当时楚国发了通缉令捉拿伍子胥,还派兵追赶。伍子胥行至大江边,仰天大哭,传说一夜须发皆白。后来他听说太子建在宋国,便找到他一起投奔吴国。

  伍子胥的逃亡经历,是后世小说家最为津津乐道的素材,由此而衍生的故事,多到不胜枚举。

  伍子胥逃到吴国后,就在吴国的街头行乞。被吴国公子光看见,认出他就是大名鼎鼎的伍子胥,于是就悄悄地将他聘为门客。

  公子光笼络到伍子胥后,伍子胥为他谋划了一整套夺权方案。先用专诸刺杀吴王僚,让公子光登上王位,成为吴王阖闾;然后又用要离刺杀僚的儿子庆忌,为吴王阖闾巩固了江山;接下来又找到军事家孙武,壮大了吴国的军事力量。

  吴王阖闾当政后,非常信任伍子胥,向他请教如何成就霸业。伍子胥称第一件事就是“相土尝水,像天法地,造筑大城”。苏州2500多年的城市格局由此奠定。伍子胥当然没忘记复仇,阖闾九年,吴军一举攻破楚国郢都,伍子胥掘平王墓鞭尸三百,报了血海深仇。

  阖闾之子夫差即位后,吴国水军在太湖打败越兵,乘胜攻入越都,越王勾践退守会稽山。勾践卧薪尝胆的计谋瞒不过伍子胥,忠心耿耿的伍子胥听到夫差北伐齐国的计划十分震惊,几次劝告夫差越国才是心腹之患,要尽快根除。而此时,志得意满的夫差哪里听得进伍子胥的逆耳忠言?还故意派他出使齐国宣战。吴王认为伍子胥去齐国宣战,居然将自己的儿子“托孤”于齐国大臣,就是谋反!偏偏伍子胥也是耿直倔强的脾气,他告诉夫差自己死后“吴国必亡于越”的预感。吴王大怒,“赐”剑让他自杀。伍子胥死前愤恨不已地说:“我死后一定将我的眼睛放在城东门,我要看到越国兵是怎么打进城的。”这下更激怒了夫差,他派人把伍子胥的尸首投入江中。

  子胥奔吴伏剑死,随流扬波成水仙。南朝梁代宗懔撰写的《荆楚岁时记》,第一次明确提到伍子胥遇难的时间是“五月五日”,从此东吴百姓开始在这一天“于江溯涛迎涛神”,祭祀伍子胥的英灵,这就是赛龙舟的由来。可见,最早的端午节是因伍子胥才有的。《荆楚岁时记》中说到端午起源时则更明确地说:“事在子胥,不关屈平也。”

  伍子胥死后206年,和他同是楚国人的屈原,再一次被楚怀王放逐后自沉汨罗。两人的不同之处在于:屈原在可以偷生的情况下,毅然选择了殉国;伍子胥在难以活命的情况下,历经艰难,最后顺利逃亡。更为不同的是,伍子胥不但胜利逃亡,而且还选择了复仇!端午节最终演变为纪念屈原的节日,恐怕原因也正在此,封建统治者需要的是逆来顺受,需要的是“君叫臣死臣不得不死”,而不是反抗和复仇。

  孔子曰:“君君,臣臣;父父,子子。”意思是说君要像个君,臣要像个臣。但孔圣人并没有说如果“君不像君”了,大臣该怎么办?“乘桴浮于海”?可关键问题是,很多时候君主连“浮于海”的自由也不给臣子啊!孟子倒是痛快,一针见血地说:“君视臣如寇仇,臣视君如独夫!”倒是有点儿权利对等的味道。结果被明太祖朱元璋下令“废而不祀”,连牌位都被扔出了儒家祠堂。

  总之,历代的专制君主们都不喜欢伍子胥这样的人,他们需要的是屈原这样的人。他们要求君臣之间只能签订单方面的“霸王合同”——我永远拥有“昏”的权利,但你们却只能尽“忠”的义务。

  伍子胥被历史忘却,屈原被大加弘扬,其中的原因,的确耐人寻味。但在苏州,2500年过去了,物是人非,胥门却一直屹立着。而胥门的边上,又多了一尊伍子胥的石像,浑然中蕴含着无限沧桑。

  人心如镜,每到端午节,想到伍子胥的恐怕仍大有人在!

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