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SAT课程:齐际讲解-附加修饰成分与补语考法!

分类:SAT | 更新时间:2016-08-18 | 来源:转载

  考法 1. 附加修饰成分修饰(难度:中等)

  附加修饰成分与全句没有语法关系,去掉句中的附加修饰成分并不会影响句子结构和表达含义,附加修饰成分通常被逗号与主句隔开。doing、done、介词短语、不定式、名词、形容词等(其中doing、done、不定式又可被称为非谓语动词)均可以做附加修饰成分。附加修饰成分可以是主语发出的动作或对主语进一步的解释说明,也可以充当状语,表达时间、地点、原因、条件、看待问题角度等。

  【例句】I love you, a fact that would never change.

  【结构】I love you, 附加修饰成分a fact that would never change.

  翻译:我爱你,这个事实不会改变。

  l a fact that would never change中名词作附加修饰成分,对I love you进行补充

  doing、done、to do不定式等做附加修饰成分时,如果其前面出现了动作明确的发出者,构成“名词(代词)+doing/done/to do”结构时,此时我们把这个结构称作为“独立主格”,把动作发出的真正主体称作为动作的“逻辑主语”,即doing、dong、不定式动作的真实发出者。在阅读时需要注意,doing、done、to do等动作的发出者不再是主句的主语,而是其前的名词或代词。

  【例句】Weather Permitting, we will go to central park tomorrow.

  【结构】附加修饰成分Weather Permitting, we will go to central park tomorrow.

  翻译:如果天气允许的话,我们明天去中央公园。

  l Weather permitting中doing作附加修饰成分,表示条件

  l Weather permitting为独立主格

  l Weather为permitting的逻辑主语

  【例句】There being no buses, we had to walk.

  【结构】附加修饰成分There being no buses, we had to walk.

  翻译:如果天气允许的话,我们明天去中央公园。

  l There being no buses中doing作附加修饰成分,表示条件

  l There being no buses为独立主格

  l There为being no buses的逻辑主语

  附加修饰成分在句中的位置没有严格的规定,可以位于句首、句中或句尾,我们通常把位于句中的附加修饰成分称作插入语,例如:

  【例句】They, he assisting her, were trying to complete the trail together.

  【结构】They, 附加修饰成分he assisting her, were trying to complete the trail together.

  翻译:他们,他协助她,尝试着去完成挑战。

  l he assisting her中doing做附加修饰成分,表示伴随动作

  l he assisting her亦可写为with he assisting her,此处with无实义,表示伴随的状态

  一个句子中可以有多个附加修饰成分。阅读时应该注意附加修饰成分动作的发出者、修饰的对象。

  【例句】I paint copies of famous paintings, sometimes for private persons or institutions, but mostly for the directors of companies who want an impressive decoration to hang in their boardrooms. Deception of an innocent kind is their intention; asked if the picture is genuine, few of them, I imagine, would lie. Nor would they be wise to. Whether they know it or not (and in some cases I am sure that they do know, collaborating with me in a further, minor deception out of pleasure and a shared sense of humor), my copies are never exact.

  【结构】附加修饰成分asked if the picture is genuine, few of them, 附加修饰成分I imagine, would lie.

  翻译:如果被问到这些画是不是真品,他们中的少数,我觉得,会撒谎。

  l asked if the picture is genuine中done作附加修饰成分,表示伴随动作,受动者是them

  l I imagine表示看问题的角度

  l 本句亦可写为I imagine that few of them, asked if then picture is genuine, would lie.

  考法 2. 补语修饰(难度:中等)

  补语的作用是对句子的主语与宾语进行补充。doing、done、名词、形容词、不定式等均可做补语。补语的作用与附加修饰成分类似,对主语或宾语补充。补语与主句联系紧密,所以通常不用逗号隔开,而这种特点会导致阅读难度的增加。应对策略是将补语用逗号隔开,置于句尾,将其看作是附加修饰成分。

  【例句】Emily gaped round-eyed.

  【结构】Emily gaped 补语round-eyed.

  翻译:Emily大吃一惊,瞪大双眼。

  l round-eyed做主语补语,与gape形成伴随状态(round-eyed不能修饰gaped,所以不能用副词词性)

  l 词句亦可写为Emily gaped, round-eyed.

  【例句】The deluded public will listen gaping to false but more emphatic prophets.

  【结构】The deluded public will listen补语gaping to false but more emphatic prophets.

  翻译:被欺骗的大众会在吃惊的状态下听从错误但却语气强烈的预言。

  l gaping做主语补语,与listen形成伴随状态(gaping不能修饰listen,所以不能用副词词性)

  l 此句亦可写为The deluded public will listen to false but more emphatic prophets, gaping.

  (练习一) 专项练习

  请正确翻译下列句子,并标出其中的附加修饰成分或补语。

  1. He came home to finish his task sick.

  2. The court was ordered cleared.

  3. People are just born what color they are.

  4. He found a young and beautiful girl, shouting and crying, obviously mad.

  5. I think it has done you a lot of good not going.

  参考答案

  1. 他带病回家完成工作。

  2. 这个法庭要求清场。

  3. 人们的肤色是天生的。

  4. 他发现一个年轻美貌的女子,又哭又喊,分明是疯了。

  5. 我觉得你没去应该对你很有好处。

  ---------------------------------------------

  参考书《SAT/ACT高分难句考法精析》

  编著者:齐际、陈琦、张凌云、鲍大千

  戈弋、王耕伟、朱思宁

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