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托福写作之对比类型考题

发布时间:2015-06-08 来源:新东方在线 发布人:

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    一、对比考题何其多

  对比类型考题在历年托福独立写作考题中,会占到相当大的比重,此类例题比比皆是。例如,从 2015年1月份第一场托福考试起到最近的4月12日的9场考试10道考题(3月7日的考试有两道考题)中就有5道考题就是对比型考题(2015.1.25,2015.2.1,2015.3.7(1),2015.3.7 (2),2015.3.28)大家先来简单回顾几个托福真题:

 

  2015.1.10

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? University students should be required to take basic science classes even if they are not part of the field of the study.

  2015.1.11

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important characteristic of a successful politician or leader is good communication skills.

  2015.1.25

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Classmates and partner can communicate with each other face to face to finish the project better than by sending e-mail.

  2015.1.31

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The rules that the whole societies today expect to young people to follow and obey are too strict.

  2015.2.1

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Movies and television have more negative effects than positive effects on the way young people behave.

  二、对比类考题的分类

  按比较对象分类可以分为以下三类:

  1)A or B

  这类对比在题目中会有非常明显对两个对比对象,在选择观点时,只选其一(骑墙式写法在托福写作中不受欢迎)。

  例如:Classmates and partner can communicate with each other face to face to finish the project better than by sending e-mail. (2015.1.25)

  在选择观点时要么选择face to face communication 要么选择send e-mail.

  2)A or (B)

  这类考题比较含蓄,比较对象往往在考题中只出现一个,而另一个则可以由推断得出。

  例如: People will spend less time on cooking food in twenty years.(2015.3.7)

  这道考题表面上是在问“在未来20年人们是否会更少花时间在做饭上”,实在是在将未来20年与现在进行对比,而它们之间的差异就是人们做饭时间差异的原因。

  其它隐性对比考题还有:The professional athletes such as the football player and basket-ball player deserved high salaries to be paid?(2010.7.10)

  这道考题表面上是在问职业运动员的高薪酬是否合理,实质上是将职业运动员的career与其它普通的career进行对比,职业运动员之所以能有高薪酬,原因在于他们的career有异于其它career 的地方,如他们的职业生涯比较短,非常容易受伤,需要承受经常比赛带来的巨大压力,需要参加严酷的训练等等。

  3)A or B or C

  这类考题中比较对象有三者,选择观点时选其一。此类考题不常见,但从2012年开始几乎每年都会考到几次。

  例如:During time of economy crisis, government should reduce budgets in: (1)education, (2) health care; (3) support for unemployed. (2013.2.2)

  Which way do you think is the best for a student to make new friends: (1) joininga sports team; (2) participate in community activities; (3) traveling (2014.3.15)

  此类题目在对比时可以三者一一对比,如A与B对比,A与C对比,也可以转换成两者对比,如A与BC对比。

  三、对比类型考题解题常犯错误:

  小伙伴们在写对比类型题目时经常会犯这样一个错误:忽略对比。

  例如:让在A跟 B之间做选择,假设选择了A, 错误的写法是只写A的好处,而决口不提B,也就是在写作过程中忽略了对比,这样的论证其实是不完整的。完整但论证应该是继写A的好处,同时要提B没有这方面的好处或提B的坏处。下面给一篇对比类型文章的范文:

  In order to celebrate important events such as graduation or a special birthday, some of them prefer a large party, while others prefer a small party that only close friends and relatives are invited.

  Delightfully, our everyday life is rife with various kinds of celebrations. When celebrating major events, I prefer to hold a small party with only close friends and relatives invited for the following reasons.

  Firstly, a small party is less costly. A small party does not require vast place or abundant supply of food and drink, thus helping to save money. For instance, when celebrating my 18th birthday, I chose to hold a small party at home, inviting merely my close friends and relatives. Instead of purchasing a tremendous amount of fast food as well as snacks, I prepared the food and the drink by myself with the assistance of my mother, which significantly lowered my expense. While the party was not held on some grand location, everybody was having a good time, chatting at my cozy home and eating my hand-made deserts. By contrast, had I threw a big party, I would have needed to rent a more spacious place, buy more foods and even have needed to temporarily employ some people to help organize the party, which would be quite costly.

  Secondly, it is more convenient to organize a small party. Hosting a large party entails a wealth of time and numerous people during the process of preparation before the party and cleaning up after the party. In other words, to organize a large party, one need to invest considerable time and even needs to resort to others’ assistance, which has the potential to disrupt his/her life, thus leading to inconvenience. On the other hand, because there are only a few individuals invited, a small party requires far less time in setting up the place and preparing for food and cleaning up trashes. Considerably less time-consuming and energy consuming, a small party causes far less inconvenience.

  Thirdly, a small party is more instrumental in promoting close relationship. In a small party in which only a few people are involved, each one can have more time and opportunities to talk with others. Also, since only intimate friends and relatives are invited, both host and guests can feel more comfortable, thus behaving and talking more naturally. All of these advantages of small party help to boost joy and promote relationship. A large party, however, is highly inferior in this aspect. To illustrate, in my high-school graduation celebration party, which was a huge one, I invited approximately 60 people. Theconsequence was that I was so busy introducing people to each other and busy controlling the party so that it would not descend into a mess that I barely had time to talk with my close friends. In the end of the party, I was exhausted and a little disappointed. After that, I realized a small party was, in reality, a more advisable choice.

  As illustrated above, a small party has more merits of saving money, time and upgrading relationship. Hence, it is a more judicious option than a large party in celebrating major events.

  上面是一篇典型的对比类型考题的文章,从中可以看出在写此类文章时:

  1.body paragraph的主题句就要体现对比,例如范文中每一个body 的主题句都有more 或者less这样的比较级词;

  2.body paragraph的论证部分也要出现对比,例如范文的观点是认为small party 比较好,但在论证时不仅论证small party的好处,同时也提到了big party在相关方面的弊端,两相对比凸显出small party是更好的选择。

  四、对比类型考题可以采用的论证方式

  1)a. A有好处1,B没有

  b. A有好处2,B没有

  c. A 有好处3,B没有

  例如,上面的small party,big party就是按照这种论证方式来写的。

      文章来源:

       新东方托福https://www.thea.cn/wx420/

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