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考研英语阅读:区分论点论据的四项原则

发布时间:2016-05-19 来源:新东方在线 发布人:

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我们知道不管是英语一还是英语二考研阅读的文章95%以上的都是议论文。而议论文最重要是找到论点。那如何区分论点和论据呢,希望大家能跟着老师一起学习:

1.若前面有完整句子。后以for example、take sth for example 、such as 、take 、consider、like 等开始的,一直到点号结束,中间都不用读,括号括起来,括号内容为论据。前一句话为论据。此情况出现频率极高。这一技巧,在阅读理解和新题型中都是适用的。

"I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we'll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. "But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur, he discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available."(1994年)

2.若前面有完整句子。后面马上出现引号引用某人的话,那后面的引用一定为论据,不用读。

Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman."(1996)那这段话中就只用读第一句。

Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process … The designer and the inventor … are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist."(1996)这段话也只用读第一句。

3. 抽象观点或概念后,有具体例子。例子为论据。这是一种频率高但是很容易忽略的点。希望大家好好练习:

But the tide is unlikely to turn back, In Australia - where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part - other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

在这一小段话中。In Australia与 In the US and Canada并列,同时也是前一句话tide趋势这一抽象概念的2个具体例子。

4. 某句后有人名,数字,时间等列举。列举点一定是论据。

The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a "disjunction" between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.

那这段话就只用读第一句。

Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.

Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much "re-engineering" has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability. BBDO's Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish -- "the worst sort of ambulance cashing."

那这2段话该怎么分析呢?我们可以看到第二段出现了2个人,也就是说整个第二段都是人名的列举。都是例子都不需要读。

综上所述,学会区分论点论据,能让我们很大程度上简化文章。希望同学们在老师的指导下能在基础阶段好好学习好好练习,为暑期和后面的强化阶段打下夯实的基础。


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