发布时间：2016-06-12 来源：新东方在线 发布人：too
For 30 years， Smithsonian Institution archeologist Dennis Stanford searched in vain for the origins of the first Americans. Every textbook described how mammoth-hunters from Siberia had migrated across the Bering land bridge about 12，000 years ago and had slowly wandered south and east until they filled the New World. In each of their settlements， this theory held， the original Americans left their calling cards： distinctively shaped spear points named after the site in Clovis， N.M.， where the stone tips were first unearthed. If this account was right， Stanford reasoned， then Siberia should be littered with similar points. But not a single Clovis point has turned up in Siberia. And now Stanford has a radical new proposal to explain why. Clovis people， he thinks， came from Europe——arriving 15，000 years before Columbus， and by boat. “They were from Iberia， not Siberia，” Stanford told startled colleagues at an archeology conference last month.
Debate over a European connection has dogged anthropology in recent months， though until now no one of Stanford's stature had stated it so un-equivocally and publicly. But the similarities between the oddly shaped stone points of Clovis and the European culture called Solutrean strongly suggest this conclusion， say Stanford and colleague Bruce Bradley. Moreover， tools recently found beneath Clovis-era layers at a dig in Cactus Hill， Va.——about where European itinerants could have first landed——also resemble Solutrean artifacts. The Solutrean theory poses similar questions to those raised by Kennewick Man， the 8，400-year-old skeleton found in Washington state in 1996 and initially called European by an anthropologist. A new federal study to help determine whether K-Man's remains should be turned over to local tribes just concluded that the body looked more Asian than European， though not Siberian. But it didn't match any modern Indian tribe， a finding that Indians see as the latest scheme to deny tribes the right to repatriate and rebury such remains.
Native Americans aren't the only ones dismayed by the Euro theory. Solutrean expert Lawrence Straus， an anthropology professor at the University of New Mexico， dismisses the resemblance between the spear points as an instance of two cultures' arriving at a similar idea independently. “This is a classic case of convergence，” says Straus. “And it's not even a tricky case.” Moreover， Solutrean culture ended 17，000 years ago， at least 5，000 years before the first evidence of Clovis culture. And there is no evidence that Solutreans had the requisite boats to paddle across the North Atlantic.
Many scientists grumble that Stanford should publish his findings in peer-reviewed journals be-fore talking in public. Stanford promises to publish soon， but in the meantime， he says， “I'm trying to get people to think more broadly.” No argument there.
注(1)：本文选自Newsweek; 11/15/99， p71;
1. What does Stanford think of the origins of the first Americans?
[A]He thinks that the first Americans came from Clovis， N.M.
[B]He agrees with the common idea that the first Americans came from Siberia.
[C]He thinks that the first Americans came from Europe.
[D]He thinks that it was people from Iberia who first invented the boat and came to America.
2. We can learn from the text that Indian tribes regard the results of the federal study as _______.
[A]a tricky scheme
[C]a cute trap
3. The views of Lawrence Straus and Stanford are _________.
4. According to Lawrence Straus， the spear points __________.
[A]show the products makers came from the same culture
[B]do not show any connection between the two cultures
[C]are not the products of the different inhabitants
[D]show the resemblance of the two different cultures
5. Which of the following statement is true?
[A]K-Man's remains helped to certify Stanford‘s assertion.
[B]The first Americans came from Europe by boat.
[C]Anthropologists fail to make such a certain statement as Stanford.
[D]It was the Indian tribes‘ rights to rebury the K-Man's remains.