发布时间：2016-06-13 来源：新东方在线 发布人：
The income-tax deadline approaches and some taxpayers‘thoughts turn to it.Test time approaches and some students’thoughts turn to it.Temptation appears and some spouses consider it.Nowadays，cheating is on the rise.“You want something you can‘t get by behaving within the rules，and you want it badly enough，you’ll do it regardless of any guilt or regret，and you‘re willing to run the risk of being caught.”That’s how Ladd Wheeler，psychology professor at the University of Rochester in New York，defines cheating.
Cheating represents the triumph of the“Brazen Rule”over the“Golden Rule”，says Terry Pinkard，philosophy professor at Georgetown University in Washington D.C.“The Golden Rule says，‘Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.’The Brazen Rule says，‘Do unto others as they would do unto you if they were in your place.’”Many experts believe cheating is on the rise.“We‘re seeing more of the kind of person who regards the world as a series of things to be manipulated.Whether to cheat depends on whether it’s in the person‘s interest.”He does，however，see less cheating among the youngest students.
Richard Dienstbier，psychology professor at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln，believes that society‘s attitudes account for much of the rise in cheating.“Twenty years ago，if a person cheated in college，society said：”That is extremely serious;you will be dropped for a semester if not kicked out permanently，’“he says.”Nowadays，at the University of Nebraska，for example，it is the stated policy of the College of Arts and Sciences that if a student cheats on an exam，the student must receive an‘F’on what he cheated on.That‘s nothing.If you’re going to fail anyway，why not cheat?“
Cheating is unethical，Pinkard says，whether it‘s massive fraud or failure to tell a store cashier you were undercharged.“You’re treating other people merely as a means for your own ends.You‘re using people in ways they would not consent to.The cheater says，’Let everybody else bear the burden，and I‘ll reap the benefits.’”
Cheaters usually try to justify their actions，says Robert Hogan，chairman of the psychology department at the University of Tulsa in Oklahoma.“They never think it‘s their fault.”Cheaters make justifications because they want to feel good about themselves，adds Wheeler.“They don’t want to label themselves as a cheater.Also，they may be anticipating the possibility of getting caught，so they work on their excuse ahead of time.”The most common justifications，psychologists say，include：
“I had to do it.”
“The test was unfair.”
“Everybody does it，and I have to cheat to get what‘s rightfully mine.”
“The government wastes the money anyway.”
“My wife (or husband) doesn‘t understand me，and we’ve grown apart.”
Cheating is most likely in situations where the stakes are high and the chances of getting caught are low，says social psychologist Lynn Kahle of the University of Oregon in Eugene.In his study，a group of freshmen were allowed to grade their own tests，while secret，pressure-sensitive paper indicated who changed answers.To raise the pressure，students were given an extremely high score as the“average”for the test and told that those who failed would go before an inquiring board of psychologists.About 46 percent of the male students changed answers;among the females，about 30 percent cheated.
Everybody cheats a little，some psychologists say，while others insist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn‘t cheat under any circumstances.
Despite the general rise in cheating，Pinkard sees some cause for hope：“I do find among younger students a much less tolerant attitude toward cheating.”Perhaps，he says，the upcoming generation is less spoiled than the“baby boom”students who preceded them—and therefore less self-centered.“There seems to be a swing back in the culture.”
1.The purpose of this passage is to____.
[A] convince the reader that cheating is immoral
[B] discuss the varieties of and reasons for cheating
[C] describe how cheaters cheat
[D] suggest how to curtail cheating
2.According to the passage，which of the following is TRUE?
[A] It is ethical to cheat unless money is involved.
[B] Failure to tell a store cashier you were undercharged is not considered cheating.
[C] There has been a general rise in cheating.
[D] Most cheaters are college students.
3.According to the passage，with which of the following would the author probably NOT agree?
[A] Cheating is often the result of intense pressure.
[B] Cheating is cheating，whether on a test or on income tax forms.
[C] Cheating is widespread and society is too tolerant.
[D] The Brazen Rule is a better rule than the Golden Rule.
4.When a person is caught cheating，it is most likely that he____.
[A] pretends to apologize for what he has done
[B] pretends that he has no knowledge of what is going on
[C] ascribes his misconduct to some external motivation
[D] denies the fact in fearful anticipation of escaping punishment
5.Regarding the future of cheating，the author seems to be____.
[A] depressed [B] optimistic
[C] amused [D] bewildered
2.[C] 参阅最后一段第一句，从Despite the general rise in cheating看，的确存在欺骗现象不断增加的问题。
3.[D] 本文对欺骗行为进行了鞭挞，作者对鼓励欺骗的厚颜无耻原则(the Brazen Rule)持批评态度。