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2016年新托福考试口语部分中常考题型分析

发布时间:2016-07-19 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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新东方托福网络课程免费试听 2016年新托福考试口语部分中常考题型分析。

现象 举例

新托福口语考试的最后一关task 6中,我们唯一所能依靠的听力材料是学术性较强的一篇lecture,少了阅读材料的辅助,更加深了同学们对讲座内容以及对讲座(monologue)形式的恐惧感,很多刚刚接触新托福的同学甚至对这一部分多少抱有听天由命的想法。其实,随着大家对task 6题目深入的了解,就会发现,这一部分所出现的lecture虽然内容保罗万象,但是大部分都是按照一种套路进行的,也就是:提出一种现象 举例的模式。了解了讲座的常见模式,也就意味着我们在考试时短时间内组织语言也可以有一套一模一样的简洁公式了,也就是topic sentence example的形式,本文将通过探讨一些常考的不同类型的task 6真题,使同学们对这一部分的答题模式更加熟悉以助同学们备考。

心理学

真题回顾:

【讲课要点】:心理学中的reinforcement,分为positive reinforcement和negative reinforcement两种,即增加能够激发个人兴趣的东西和消除自己不喜欢的东西。

【举例说明】:

1. positive(add the pleasure):早起奖励自己好的food,这样就可以让你喜欢早起这种 behavior。

2. negative(remove the unpleasant behavior),不喜欢早上shower,那么可以改在晚上,这样人也就不会那么讨厌早起了。

参考范例:

The lecture tells about two main methods which can be used to reinforce people. It states that reinforcement of behavior means that people strengthen certain acts on purpose by using the positive or negative stimulus. Then the professor shows some examples. Let’s suppose that you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by using either a positive or a negative reinforcement. The positive one is to add the pleasure to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. For example, you can reward yourself with a very nice breakfast if you get up early. A negative one is to remove the unpleasant behavior off your daily routine. For example, If you do not enjoy taking a shower early in the morning, you can take it in the evening instead. Therefore, when you have to get up early in the morning, you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like out of your morning schedule.

在这道Task6的讲座中,professor通过列举两个实现早起上班的例子来说明reinforcement这种现象。心理学方面的问题在Task 6当中出现的比例还是比较高的,接下来我们再来看一个心理学的例子。

真题回顾:

【讲课要点】:心理学中的奖励机制reward。说奖励机制有两种效果。

【举例说明】:

1. 正的。第一种让这种行为更多的发生。她的女儿Jenny,不爱收拾屋子,他们就给她钱,这本来是她不愿意做的事情,但慢慢地就自觉自愿地多做了。

2. 反的。第二种导致行为发生少了。又是Jenny,喜欢弹钢琴,他们就奖励她,但是弹得少了,因为觉得弹钢琴变成了一种义务chore,就像收拾屋子。T

参考范例:

In the lecture the professor tells about the rewarding strategy in Psychology. He states that reward can influence people’s behavior in two ways: positively and negatively. Then the professor goes on to further explain that by taking her daughter — Jenny for an example. Jenny doesn’t like cleaning up the room, so he gives her money to encourage her to do that. And gradually, she likes the work and does it more often,which is the positive effect that rewarding has. But on the other hand, something that a person likes to do may become the daily chores because of the rewarding system. For example, Jenny likes to play the piano,but when her parents give her a reward, she, on the contrary, plays less often ‘cause she thinks playing the piano, just like cleaning the house, is a kind of chore,that is negative effects that rewarding has.

重点阅读:

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