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托福TPO1综合写作真题、音频及解析

发布时间:2016-08-18 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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新东方托福网络课程免费试听 为广大考生整理“托福TPO1综合写作真题、音频及解析”,希望大家能有所收获,祝大家备考顺利!

  综合写作是作文部分,必不可少的一部分。但是在此之前,我们很多考友都将这一部分给忽略了,我们总是将 独立作文放在了第一位,但是实际上,综合作文也是占到了作文总分 30 分里面的 50%的分值。

  我们很多考友都是在分数出来之后,才发现综合作文的 limited 或者 fair 极大的影响了自己的分数。

  其实我们之所以综合作文分数不高,很大程度上是受我们的听力实力的影响,换句话说,当我们很多考友的听力分数只有 15 分上下的时候,我们对于综合作文的听力真的是束手无策。

  新东方托福考试网为大家准备了“托福TPO1综合写作题目及解析”,供各位备考托福的考生们参考使用,来提高自己的托福成绩!

  托福TPO1综合写作真题、音频及解析

  Reading Part:

  In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for eight hours each day.

  However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. A mandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option. The shortened workweek would increase company profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff to ensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result in additional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80 percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have fewer overworked and error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase company profits. For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rates.

  If many full-time employees started working fewer hours, some of their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every four employees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the 80 percent rate. Finally, the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their lives by spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests, or enjoying leisure activities.

  中文解析:

  在美国,职员一般执行的一周五天,每天八小时工作制。然而,很多职员希望能够改为四天工作制,如果能够满足需要可以接受薪水降低。要求企业提供薪水八成工作四天的工作方式供员工选择对于国家整个经济都是有好处的,同时获益的还有个人,以及执行这个政策的公司。

  减少工作日会提高公司的利润,因为员工们会感到很轻松和精神,这样他们就会在工作中较少犯那些可能会带来损失的错误。为了完成同样的工作量将需要雇佣更多的人手,但是这不意味着需要支付更多的薪水,这是因为四天工作日只需支付给每个员工 80%的工资。这样,公司花同样的钱,员工这会过于劳累和失误连连了,这样将会提高公司的利润。

  对于国家整体来说,给职员提供这样的选择选择的好处就是可以降低失业率。如果原来全职工作的人缩短了工作时间之后,他们的部分工作就需要转给其他的员工。这样,如果每个员工每周都只工作 80%的时间,这样就可以以同样的工作时间来雇佣新员工了。

  最后,这种四天工作日的选择对于员工个人来说也是有利的。那些可以接受用降低薪水来增加休息时间的员工可以提高他们的生活质量,因为他们有更多的时间陪家人、追求自己的兴趣、以及享受一些休闲生活。

  Listening Part:

  Professor

  Offering employees the option of a four-day workweek won't affect the company profits, economic conditions or the lives of employees in the ways the reading suggests.

  First, offering a four-day workweek will probably force companies to spend more, possibly a lot more. Adding new workers means putting much more money into providing training and medical benefits. Remember the costs of things like health benefits can be the same whether an employee works four days or five. And having more employees also requires more office space and more computers. These additional costs would quickly cut into company profits.

  Second, with respect to overall employment, it doesn't follow that once some employees choose a four-day workweek, many more jobs will become available. Hiring new workers is costly, as I argued a moment ago. And companies have other options. They might just choose to ask their employees to work overtime to make up the difference. Worse, companies might raise expectations. They might start to expect that their four-day employees can do the same amount of work they used to do in five days. If this happens, then no additional jobs will be created and

  current jobs will become more unpleasant.

  Finally, while a four-day workweek offers employees more free time to invest in their personal lives, it also presents some risks that could end up reducing their quality of life. Working a shorter week can decrease employees' job stability and harm their chances for advancing their careers. Four-day employees are likely to be the first to lose their jobs during an economic downturn. They may also be passed over for promotions because companies might prefer to have five-day employees in management positions to ensure continuous coverage and consistent supervision for the entire workweek.

  中文解析:

  给雇员提供四天工作日的选择不会像阅读部分上所说的对企业、经济状况和雇员个人的生活带来积极的影响的。

  首先,采用四小时工作制可能会对导致企业支出增加,甚至大幅增加。增加新的员工以为这要再员工培训和医疗保险上花费更多的钱。别忘了,无论是四天工作制还是五天工作制,每个人在诸如保健福利金方面的花费是一样的。而新增的员工统一也需要更多的工位和更多的电脑。这些额外的支出很快就会影响到公司的利润。

  第二,至于整个社会的就业问题,也不是像阅读部分所说的,只要有雇员选择四天工作制,就会创造更多的就业机会。鉴于我刚才说的,雇佣新员工花费颇多,很多公司都另作选择了。他们可能就是要求他们的员工加班已完成任务差额。甚至公司可能会提高它们对员工效率的预期。它们可能会要求改成四天工作制的员工完成过去他们五天完成的任务。如果这样,不但没有新的工作机会,而且现 有的工作也变得不那么令人愉快了。

  最后,虽然四天工作日给员工更多的空闲时间去安排他们的私人生活,但是他们也会冒有一定风险,这些风险甚至可能会降低他们的生活质量。时间较短的工作制将会降低雇员工作的稳定性,同时阻碍他们事业的发展。在面临经济危机的时候,选择四天工作制的员工将会首当其冲地被裁掉。同时由于公司更倾向于把管理岗给那些五天工作的员工,这样四天工作制的员工将会错失进行集会。企业正阳的考虑是为了保证在整个工作周期中都有持续的管理覆盖和持续的监督机制。

  Question:

  Summarize the point made in the lecture , being sure to explain how the cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

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