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2016年5月托福阅读精讲复习(三)

发布时间:2016-08-26 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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   分词

  分词是TOEEL必考内容,在历届试题中均占相当大的比例。分词的命题形式非常广泛。平均分布在written Expressions 和structure两部分。有时,即使分词不是题目焦点,但对分词的正确分析则可以帮助考生选择正确的答案。分词的命题要点集中在(1)分词的形容词特性、(2)分词短语作后置定语、(3) 现在分词和过去分词的主动与被动含义。

  分词常考题型及解题要点:

  1. 分词具有形容词特征,可单独作定语或表语。

  全真例题分析

  (1) The highly respect zoologist Ernest Just Joined the ruling board of the Marine Biological Laboratory in the 1930*s (93.1)

  [答案] B 动词respect用来修饰后面的名词zoologist,故应改用分词respected形式,其作用相当于形容词作定语。

  (2) A patent gives inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for a fix period of time. (90.1)

  [答] C 修饰保词period应用动词的分词形式,即fixed。

  (3) Characteristics of Op Art are the carefully arrange hues and geometric patterns that create optical illusions. (88.5)

  [答案] A 修饰名词hues,应用分词形式arranged。

  (4) The question of the origin of the Moon is interest not only in itself but also as a part of the larger genesis of the earth and the solar system . (88.5)

  [答案] B interest应用其分词interesting形式作表语,作用相当于一个形空词。

  2. 分词短语作定语,放置于中心名词后面

  解题要点 分词短语作后置定语在TOEEL考题中出现频率非常高。因而,考生务必熟记这一结构和用法。实际上,分词短语作后置定语。皆是定语从句的省略形式。

  全真例题分析

  (1) The leaves and stems of the aifaifa plant are the only parts of the plant -------

  (A) the uses for livestock feed

  (B) for using livestock feed

  (C) used for livestock feed

  (D) they are used for livestock feed (93.1)

  [答案] C过去分词used 介语短语组成的分词短语修饰前面的名词成分the only parts of the plant,作后置定语。此结构亦扩展为定语从句(that are ) used for livestock feed

  (2) The slide rule used sliding scales with marks ------- numbers and their logarithms.

  (A) representing

  (B) represented

  (C) are represented

  (D) they are representing (92.10)

  [答案] A 分词短语作名词marks的后置定语,作用相当于一个定语从句:which represent numbers and their logarithms。

  (3) Earlg philosophers believe that the mind was divided into three faculties ------- s feeling ,intellect and will

  (A) to know

  (B) known

  (C) knowing

  (D) knew them (94.1)

  [答案] B分词短语known as…说明前面的名词three faculties。此结构可改写成定语从句。Which are known as…

  (4) The bison know for the hump over its shoulders is usually called a buffalo in North America. (91.1)

  [答案] A 此句主语是The bison ,谓语是系词is ,划线A部分应当为分词短语,修饰名词The bison .A应改为known for。

  (5) Louisa May Alcott is chiefly remembered for Little Women. One of the most popular girls books ever wrote (88.5)

  [答案] D 修饰名词books应用分词生语ever written。

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