当前位置:网校排名 > 新东方在线 > 新东方在线资讯 > 考研阅读精选:母爱治愈 贫穷创伤

直播课程
新东方在线

考研阅读精选:母爱治愈 贫穷创伤

发布时间:2016-09-05 来源:新东方在线 发布人:

新东方在线0元免费畅学窗口
How a Mother's Love May Counter the Negative Health Effects of Poverty

母爱治愈 贫穷创伤

September 27th 2011 | from Time
\

BEING raised in poverty can have lifelong negative effects on children"s health, increasing their risk of chronic disease in adulthood. But new research suggests one factor that may help protect poor kids from later illness: having a nurturing mother.

Growing up poor is stressful, and chronic stress is known to impact physical health long term. Research finds that poor kids are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome — a collection of risk factors that may lead to Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke — compared with their wealthier peers, for example.Unless they have an especially nurturing mother and lots of maternal warmth.

The study examined a sample of 1,215 middle-aged Americans who were part of a larger ongoing research project. The researchers determined participants' socioeconomic backgrounds based on their parents' education level and used questionnaires to gauge how nurturing those parents were in childhood.

Overall, kids who grew up poor were 40% more likely to have metabolic syndrome in adulthood — which includes high blood pressure, glucose intolerance and extra fat around the middle — than more privileged children. That elevated risk remained even in poor children who grew up to complete college and raise their socioeconomic status.

But when the effect of parental care was taken into account, the researchers found that the excess risk disappeared. Children who were raised in low-educated families, but whose mothers were nurturing, were no more likely to have metabolic syndrome than kids whose parents had four-year college degrees.

"The true value in this study is the demonstration of the capacity of positive relational characteristics to buffer the known impact of adverse experiences on the developing child," says Dr. Bruce Perry, a senior fellow of the ChildTrauma Academy, who was not associated with the study.

So how does Mom's love translate into a lower risk of heart disease and diabetes? The answer has to do with how the body reacts to chronic stress, and how parental nurture reduces these physiological changes.

The chronic high stress of growing up poor can alter children's developmental pathways. One result is changes in levels of cortisol, a key stress hormone. "Cortisol changes the way glucose is regulated. It changes insulin sensitivity and glucose production," explains Miller. "There are effects on blood vessels, on how elastic they are and on retention of fat in the abdominal cavity. Inflammation also plays a role." All these factors contribute to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

Maternal nurture, in contrast, lowers children's levels of stress hormones. It can mitigate the damaging effects of having low social status and living in high-crime neighborhoods. "High levels of nurture can teach kids growing up in a dangerous and unpredictable environment that you can trust some people. You don't always have to be suspicious and  vigilant," says Miller, noting that a state of high vigilance and mistrust goes hand-in-hand with elevated stress hormone levels.

Studies show that being held and treated kindly lowers kids' stress. "Giving them that basic sense of security and trust relieves them from this physiological burden that you carry if you are constantly on alert for threat, and worried about someone harming you physically or psychologically," Miller says.

"To date most of the studies in this area have focused on adverse experiences, which, of course, are important to understand," says Perry. "Yet examining adverse experiences only gives an incomplete picture of developmental risk. Examining the nature and timing of adverse experience, as well as potential attenuating factors, such as maternal nurturance, is the only way to develop a sophisticated understanding of the impact of experience on the developing child."

热门推荐:

考研网校哪个好
新东方考研培训班
考研培训班
考研培训机构哪个好
考研英语网络课程
文都考研网校
北京考研培训班

上一篇:英语考研:根据题型记词汇更有效

下一篇:考研英语阅读:观点态度题

相关阅读

老师推荐

扩展阅读