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职称英语重要语法知识点总结(19)_职称英语网校

发布时间:2016-09-22 来源:新东方在线 发布人:wyznl

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where : 当先行名词在从句中当"地点状语"时,用关系副词where连接

例如:

The crime rate rises in cities where the unemployment rate increases. (失业率高的城市犯罪率也高。) 句中的where = in cities, 表示行为发生的地点。

这里的要点是能否区分是用that (which) 还是用 where, 即:是做"主语、宾表语",还是做"地点状语",例如:

I love the small town that we visited last week.

句中"town"做动词"visited"的宾语,即"参观过的小镇",故用that连接。

I love the small town where I lived during my childhood.

句中"town" 是动词"lived"的地点,即"童年时住过的小镇",故用where.

这也是定语从句的一个考点。

when : 当先行名词在从句中当"时间状语"时,用关系副词when连接, 例如:

July is the month when we have a lot of rain. (七月是多雨的月份。)

注意"when"定语从句后推的现象,例如:

I think (that) the day will finally come when air pollution can be put under control. (我认为空气污染得以控制的一天最终会来到。)

放在主句后面作非限制定语从句时(前面一般加","号),"when"一般译为"此时","那时", 例如:

The meeting will be put off until next month, when we will have made all the preparations. (会议将推迟到下月,那时一切就准备就绪了。)

另一个关系副词是why,由于它固定与the reason搭配, 即: the reason why,不难理解,一般也不作为考试的重点。例如:

This is the reason why the electronic computer cannot entirely replace man. 这就是(为什么)电子计算机不能完全代替人的原因。

whose (= of which / whom):做先行词(不管是人还是物)的定语,汉语为"…的",不要考虑是否是限制性或非限制性定语从句, 例如:

Pay attention to that boy whose temperature is very high. (理论上也可以写成:Pay attention to that boy the temperature of whom is very high. 注意那个男孩,他的体温很高。(非限制性) / 注意那个体温很高的男孩。(限制性)

介词 which (whom)

先看两个句子:

This is the house. He has lived in the house for over 30 years.

变为↓定语从句

This is the house in which he has lived for over 30 years.

上述句子中,先行词在从句中充当介词宾语,形成"介词 which / whom"的形式,考试时要求作出1)要不要介词;2)若要,使用什么介词的判断。由于英语中介词搭配多为习惯用法,没有多少规律可循,因此这是定语从句考试的一个难点。

记住四个字:瞻前顾后

瞻前:先看看先行词一般与什么介词搭配,例如:

There are occasions _____ which joking is not permissible.

→ Joking is not permissible _____ (certain) occasions.

常与occasion搭配的介词是什么?on, 即:

Joking is not permissible on (certain) occasions. (有的场合是不容许开玩笑的。)

There are occasions on which joking is not permissible.

顾后:看看谓语动词常与什么介词搭配,例如:

This car, ____ which I paid a lot of money, is now out of date.

→ I paid a lot of money ______ this car.

Pay (money) for something 是一个固定的搭配,因此应填介词 "for"

当A、B、C、D中出现 " 介词 which / whom" 选项时,而你又确实看不懂时,应倾向于选择" 介词 which / whom"的形式,例如:

The two elements _____ water is made are the gases oxygen and hydrogen.

A. that

B. which

C. with which

D. of which

倾向选择C、D;正确答案D,"be made of "(由…组成):

The two elements are gases (oxygen and hydrogen).

Water is made of the two elements.

两个句子一合并,便是该句选择。

(四)其他应注意的确问题:

(1) 同位语从句只能用"that"连接

常见的同位语先行词有:fact(事实), possibility(可能), idea(想法), belief(相信), doubt(疑问), news(消息), order(命令), promise(承诺), evidence(证据), suggestion(建议)等,例如:

Is there any possibility that all the villagers can send their children to school?(有没有这种可能,所有村民都能送他们的孩子上学?)

There can be no doubt that he is a qualified doctor.(毫无疑问,他是个合格的医生。)

(2) "as" 也可以做关系代词用于连接定语从句,特别是在"such…as…", "the same as…" 以及"正如…"的结构中,例如:

I have never seen a thing as he described. (我从未见过他所描述的那种事。)

As was expected, the performance was a great success. (正如所料,演出获得了巨大成功。)

把该句理解为:The performance was a great success, which was expected,就比较容易理解as的这种用法。

将定语从句的连接用三句话归纳一下:

↗ 人用who / whom

(1)先行词在从句中当主、宾、表语 →定语用whose

↘ 物用that (= which)/ 非限制用which

↗地点状语用:where

(2)先行词在从句中当 →原因状语(reason)用:why

↘ 时间状语用:when

(3)介词 which / whom结构:瞻前顾后


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