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考研英语专用语法手册1

发布时间:2016-09-29 来源:新东方在线 发布人:

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一、时态、语态

时态、语态需要掌握的要点:

1.以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时,同样不用于完成进行时:

(1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

(2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love, prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear;

(3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel, mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust, suppose;

(4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

(5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve, matter, seem。

如:

I'd say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal.

(1997年考研题, belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night.

(1990年考研题,see表示结果,不用于进行式)

2. 不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

(1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

(2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start, take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

(3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided.

(4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders.

(5)be on the point /verge of (doing)表示"马上就要",一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

(6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return, start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

If you want your film to be properly processed, you'll have to wait and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow.

(画线部分一般不用will be)

(7)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

I don't know where he will go tomorrow. 我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)

I'll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

比较:I'll tell him when you ring again.你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

(8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn't know the answer to last time.

(include 不能用will include或其他形式)

3.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:

(1)by/between/up to/till 过去时间、since、by the time/when 表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:

We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.

(表示1919年时已发生的情况)

(2)by 将来时间、by the time/ when 谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

(3)by now、since 过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is 具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

The changes that had taken place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century.

It is four years since John left school.

(4)在It is the 序数词/形容词最高级 that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

It isn't the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.

(5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

(6)其他与完成时连用的时间状语:all this while, all this year, for some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

4.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:

The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.

The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his followers had been demonstrating for.

时态、语态答题思路:

(1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;

(2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

二、不定式

1.不定式做主语

(1)做形式主语的代词:

不定式做主语, 通常用it充当形式主语, 把做主语的不定式短语后置。 如:

It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

To be frank, it is a great relief to have the task fulfilled in so short a time.

(2)引导逻辑主语的介词:

不定式的逻辑主语一般由介词for引导,但下列表示人的性格行为特征的形容词做表语时, 不定式的逻辑主语则由of引导:

absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong。如:

Experts say walking is one of the best ways for a person to stay healthy.

It's clever of you to have invented such a device.

(3)不定式做主语补足语:

掌握常用不定式做主语补足语的句型。注意不定式表示的动作发生的时间,并采用相应形式。如:

said

reported

thought

be to do sth.

believed

known

supposed

Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes.

The bank is reported in the local newspaper to have been robbed in broad daylight yesterday.

2.不定式做宾语

(1)必须接不定式做宾语的动词:

掌握要求接不定式做宾语的动词:

agree, afford, aim, arrange, appear, ask, attempt, choose, claim, decide, desire, determine, expect, fail, guarantee, hope, endeavor, intend, long, mean, manage, offer, ought, plan, pledge, pretend, prepare, promise, proceed, prove, resolve, refuse, request, swear, tend, try, venture, wait, wish。如:

Even though the children pretended to be asleep, the nurses were not deceived when they came into the room.

注意:

1)有的动词要求特殊疑问词 不定式做宾语, 这类动词有:

consider, discover, explain, forget, guess, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, understand, wonder,如:

While still a young boy, Bizet knew how to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen.

2)如果该特殊疑问词在不定式中做介词宾语, 介词往往置于该特殊疑问词的前面。如:

The professor can hardly find sufficient grounds on which to base his argument in favor of the new theory.

Without facts, we cannot form worthwhile opinion for we need to have factual knowledge upon which to base our thinking.

(2)可以用不定式做宾语补足语(复合宾语)的动词:

下列动词可以用不定式做宾语补足语(复合宾语):

advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, command, compel, enable, determine, encourage, expect, feel, find, force, hate, have, hear, help, inform, invite, let, like, make, mean, need, notice, notify, oblige, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, see, send, teach, tell, tempt, trouble, urge, want, warn, watch, wish。

注意:画线动词后面的不定式不带to。

如:Because of the recent accidents, our parents forbid my brother and me to swim in the river unless someone agrees to watch over us.

3.不定式做定语

(1)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或next, last, only, not, a, the, very等限定词时,该名词用不定式做定语。如:

the first woman to set foot on the moon 第一个登上月球的女性

(2)如果其动词要求不定式做宾语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:

tendency to do→tend to do, decision to do→decide to do

This book is an attempt to help you use English and recognize how it is used.

(3)如果其形容词形式要求接不定式做补语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:

ambition to do "干……的雄心"→be ambitious to do"有雄心干……"

curiosity to do "对……的好奇心"→be curious to do"对……好奇"

ability to do"做……的能力"→able to do"有能力做……"

According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species' ability to survive are naturally selected and passed on to succeeding generation.

(4)表示方式、原因、时间、机会、权利等名词用不定式做定语,这些名词包括:

way, method, reason, time, place, chance, occasion, opportunity, evidence, power, right, movement, drive (运动),effort等。如:I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.

We appreciate your efforts to bring about a comprehensive solution to the existing problem.

(5)不定代词something, nothing, little, much, a lot习惯上用不定式做定语。如:

Though we have made great progress, there is still much to be improved.

4.不定式做状语

不定式做状语主要表示目的、程度、结果、方式。

(1)in order to(do), so as to(do)结构引导目的状语,so as to不能置于句首。如:

To succeed in a scientific research project, one needs to be persistent.

I advise them to withdraw so as not to get involved.

(2)so…as to, such…as to, enough…to, too…to结构做程度状语。如:

The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don't have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together.

The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so trivial and few as hardly to be noticed.

(3)不定式做结果状语只能出现在句子的末尾,表示不愉快的结果,有时用only加强语气。

常见的不定式动词有find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce等。如:

Greatly agitated, I rushed to the apartment and tried the door, only to find it locked.

(4)not/never too… to, too… not to, but/only too…to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意义。如:

I am only too pleased to hear from you further. 能再听到你的消息,我太高兴了。

三、动名词

1.必须接动名词做宾语的动词

牢记下列要求接动名词做宾语的动词:

acknowledge, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, advise, avoid, admit, confess, consider, defend, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, imagine, include, involve, justify, keep mind, miss, mention, pardon, practice, postpone, permit, report, resent, resume, recall,recollect,risk, resist, suggest, tolerate。如:

Although a teenager, Fred could resist being told what to do and what not to do.

I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

2.动名词做介词短语

考生尤其要识别下列短语中的to是介词,不是不定式符号:

object to, resort to, react to, contribute to, look forward to, be accustomed to, be committed to, be exposed to, be subjected to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, be opposed to, be reconciled to, be contrary to, be (get) used to, come close to, get down to, give oneself up to, prefer…to, see to, set to, take to, in addition to, with regard to, with a view to, on the way to。如:

There was no sign that Mr.Jospin, who keeps a firm control on the party despite having resigned from leadership of it, would intervene personally.

Our modern civilization must not be thought of as having been created in a short period of time.

Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen.

As the children become financially independent of the family, the emphasis on family financial security will shift from protection to saving for the retirement years.

Everyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion about economic recovery being just around the corner was untrue.

四、分词

分词起形容词和副词的作用,在句中做定语或状语。在概念上考生应清楚:

● 现在分词表示主动,表示动作在进行。

● 过去分词表示被动,表示动作结束了的状态或结果。

1.分词做定语,弄清现在分词与过去分词的区别

分词短语做定语相当于省略了的定语从句,考生应掌握:

(1)现在分词与被修饰词之间具有主动意义。如:

It's easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world. (相当于the changes which take place...)

There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.(相当于which gave...)

How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion? (相当于How many of us who will attend...)

(2)过去分词与被修饰词之间具有被动意义。如:

Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered.

(相当于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)

Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out.

(相当于…each new phone which is added to…)

The author gave a detailed description based on his personal observation of nature.

(相当于…description which was based on…)

(3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义:

deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如:

an escaped prisoner一个逃犯

a retired worker一位退休工人

a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘

a newly arrived student一个新来的学生

2.分词做状语,注意区分分词的一般式与完成式

(1)表示时间,多置于句首,注意如果分词表示的动作的时间先于谓语动词,要用完成式。如:

Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发生)

(2)表示原因,置于句首句尾均可,根据情况有时要用完成式,有时用一般式。如:

He wasn't asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.

There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.

(3)表示伴随、方式,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:

Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.

Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.

(4)表示结果,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:

The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.

(5)表示补充说明(同位),置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:

The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.

Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.

3.分词的独立主格结构

分词的逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则分词短语要有自己的逻辑主语,称为分词独立主格结构。分词独立主格结构只是句子的一个部分,但在翻译时经常译成独立的句子,考生要注意英汉两种语言在结构上的区别。如:

All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.

4.分词做表语和补语,尤应注意由使役动词变来的分词的形式

(1)现在分词表示主语或宾语的特征,多以事物做(逻辑)主语。如:

His victory in the final was no more convincing than I had expected.

(2)过去分词表示主语或宾语所处的状态或对某事的心理反应和感受,多以人做(逻辑)主语。如:

These students are quick at learning. We'll have them trained in new methods.

People cannot but feel puzzled. For they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake.

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