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新东方考研英语阅读模板25

发布时间:2017-03-17 来源:新东方在线 发布人:Too

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SAMPLE 25

[动物学类]


题目序号 题型归类

第1题 中心主旨题型

第2题 归纳推导题型

第3题 审题定位题型

第4题 主题句理解题型

第5题 句间关系题型


Investigators of monkey’s social behavior have always been struck by monkeys’ aggressive potential and the consequent need for social control of their aggressive behavior. Studies directed at describing aggressive behavior and the situations that elicit it, as well as the social mechanisms that control it, were therefore among the first investigations of monkeys’ social behavior.

Investigators initially believed that monkeys would compete for any resource in the environment: hungry monkeys would fight over food, thirsty monkeys would fight over water, and, in general, at time more than one monkey in a group sought the same incentive simultaneously, a dispute would result and would be resolved through some form of aggression. However, the motivating force of competition for incentives began to be doubted when experiments like Southwick’s on the reduction of space or the withholding of food failed to produce more than temporary increases in intragroup aggression. Indeed, food deprivation not only failed to increase aggression but in some cases actually resulted in decreased frequencies of aggression.

Studies of animals in the wild under conditions of extreme food deprivation likewise revealed that starving monkeys devoted almost all available energy to foraging, with little energy remaining for aggressive interaction. Furthermore, accumulating evidence from later studies of a variety of primate groups, for example, the study conducted by Bernstein, indicates that one of the most potent stimuli for eliciting aggression is the introduction of an intruder into an organized group. Such introductions result in far more serious aggression than that produced in any other types of experiments contrived to produce competition.

These studies of intruders suggest that adult members of the same species introduced to one another for the first time show considerable hostility because, in the absence of a social order, one must be established to control interanimal relationships. When a single new animal is introduced into an existing social organization, the newcomer meets even more serious aggression. Whereas in the first case aggression establishes a social order, in the second case resident animals mob the intruder, thereby initially excluding the new animal from the existing social unit. The simultaneous introduction of several animals lessens the effect, if only because the group divides its attention among the multiple targets. If, however, the several animals introduced a group constitute their own social unit, each group may fight the opposing group as a unit; but, again, no individual is subjected to mass attack, and the very cohesion of the groups precludes prolonged individual combat. The submission of the defeated group, rather than unleashing unchecked aggression on the part of the victorious group, reduces both the intensity and frequency of further attack. Monkey groups therefore seem to be organized primarily to maintain their established social order rather than to engage in hostilities per se.



1. The author of the text is primarily concerned with

[A] advancing a new methodology for changing a monkey’s social behavior.

[B] comparing the methods of several research studies on aggression among monkeys.

[C] explaining the reasons for researcher’s interest in monkey’s social behavior.

[D] discussing the development of investigators’ theories about aggression among monkeys.


2. Which of the following best summarizes the findings reported in the text about the effects of food deprivation on monkeys’ behavior?

[A] Food deprivation has no effect on aggression among monkeys.

[B] Food deprivation increases aggression among monkeys because one of the most potent stimuli for eliciting aggression is the competition for incentives.

[C] Food deprivation may increase long-term aggression among monkeys in a laboratory setting, but it produces only temporary increase among monkeys in the wild.

[D] Food deprivation may temporarily increase aggression among monkeys, but it also leads to a decrease in conflict.


3. The text suggests that investigators of monkeys’ social behavior have been especially interested in aggressive behavior among monkeys because

[A] aggression is the most common social behavior among monkeys.

[B] successful competition for incentives determines the social order in a monkey group.

[C] situation that elicit aggressive behavior can be studied in a laboratory.

[D] most monkeys are potentially aggressive, yet they live in social units that could not function without control of their aggressive impulses.


4. The text supplies information to answer which of the following questions?

[A] How does the reduction of space affect intragroup aggression among monkeys in an experimental setting?

[B] Do family units within a monkey social group compete with other family units for food?

[C] What are the mechanisms by which the social order of an established group of monkeys controls aggression within that group?

[D] How do monkeys engaged in aggression with other monkeys signal submission?


5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the second paragraph?

[A] A hypothesis is explained and counter evidence is described.

[B] A theory is advanced and specific evidence supporting it is cited.

[C] Field observations are described and a conclusion about their significance is drawn.

[D] Two theories are explained and evidence supporting each of them is detailed.



[答案与考点解析]


1. 【答案】D

【考点解析】本题是一道中心主旨题。全文从头至尾围绕着 “aggression”一词进行论述和讨论,故本题的正确答案中应含有“aggression”一词。第二段的第二句是本文论述和讨论中的一条分水岭,从该句往后叙述科学家们对“aggression”的新认识和发现;该句以前的部分叙述科学家们以往的认识。这就暗示了科学家有关“aggression”理论的进一步发展(development)。考生在阅读原文时应重视并且善于捕捉和理解有关对立对比对照的信息。


2. 【答案】D

【考点解析】这是一道归纳推导题。根据题干中的 “food deprivation”这两个单词可以把本题的答案信息来源确定在第二段的倒数第一、二句和第三段的首句,从这三句中可直接归纳推导出本题的正确选项D。考生在解题时要善于利用题干中的词语确定正确答案信息在原文中的准确位置。


3. 【答案】D

【考点解析】本题是一道审题定位题型。考生可根据题干中的“have been especially interested in…”将本题的答案信息来源确定在第一段的第一句,因为第一句中的 “have always been struck by…”与之含义相同。 “strike”(过去分词是struck)的含义是“吸引”。第一句话中的 “the consequent need for social control of their aggressive behavior” 以及第二句话中的“the social mechanisms that control it”均暗示本题的正确答案是D。考生在解题时一定要首先具备审题定位的能力,其次还要善于理解原文的细节信息。


4. 【答案】A

【考点解析】这是一道主题句理解题型。从客观上讲,本题的题干没有提供任何可以利用的信息帮助我们去在原文中确定本题的信息来源。但是从另一方面讲,这道题难在表面,易在本质,因为每一个注意到本文重点关键句的同学都不会忽略本文第二段的第二句,正是这句话给出了我们本题的正确答案。考生在解题时,尤其在迷失解题思路时,一定要多想一想全文的中心主旨句以及每段的中心主旨句。这对于破解此类题型是非常重要的。


5. 【答案】A

【考点解析】这是一道段落结构以及句间关系识别题。第二段的第二句和第三句是对第二段第一句所提出的假设(hypothesis)的否定。第二段第二句利用 “Southwick” 的研究成果作为证据(evidence)来否定以前科学家的假设。故本题的正确答案应该是A。考生在解题时应重视每个段落中每句话之间的相互关系。

[参考译文]

研究猴子社会行为的研究人员总是对猴子好斗性的潜能,以及随之而来的对它们好斗性行为所需要的社会控制而产生兴趣。因此,以描述好斗性行为和引发这种行为的情景以及控制这种行为的社会机制为目的进行的研究,就成为最初对猴子社会行为研究的内容。

研究人员们起初相信,猴子们会为了环境中的任何资源而进行竞争;饥饿的猴子会为了食物而争夺,干渴的猴子会为了饮水而打架,并且,总的说来,每当多于一只猴子同时为了同样的刺激物争夺时,争执便会发生,并最终以某种形式的斗争而解决。然而,猴子对刺激物展开竞争的动机开始受到怀疑,这是由于像索思维克那样的实验表明,减少空间或不给猴子喂食仅仅只能暂时增加猴子社会群体内部的争斗。事实上,食物缺乏不但不能加剧好斗性,反而在某些情况下实际导致了冲突行为频率的下降。

研究在野生状态中在极端食物缺乏条件下的动物表明,饥饿的猴子将所能获得的几乎全部精力都用于寻找食物,而几乎没有任何剩余的精力来进行相互争斗。此外,后来对一系列灵长目动物群研究的不断积累的证据证明(比如由本斯坦所指导的研究),引发好斗性行为的最强有力的刺激因素之一,就是在一个有组织的群体内引入一个入侵者。这样的引入所导致的好斗性行为,比在任何其他为了制造竞争的实验中所产生的好斗性行为严重很多。

这些对入侵者的研究表明,同一物种的成年成员首次被相互引见给对方时,会展示出相当大的敌意,这是因为在缺乏某种社会秩序的情况下,为了能控制动物之间的关系,一只猴子必须确立自己的地位。当单独一只新动物被引入到一个已经存在的社会组织中来时,新来者会遭受到更加严重的攻击。尽管在第一种情形中,好斗有利于确立某种社会秩序,然而,在第二种情形中,已经在群体中居住的动物则会对新来者进行围攻,从而在开始便将新动物驱逐出现存的社会单元。同时引入几只动物,将会减轻这种影响;如果是这样,那么仅仅是因为整个群体在多种目标之间分散了其注意力。但是,如果被引入到某一群体中的那几只动物能构成自己的社会单元,则每一个群体可能会作为一个单元向敌对的群体发起攻击。但是,还是没有单独一只动物会遭到集体的攻击,而正是团体的这种凝聚力,排除了持久的单独作战。是失败的那个群体的投降,而不是获胜群体这一方无节制的攻击,这将会进一步减弱攻击的强度和频率。因此,猴群看上去主要是为了维持它们既已确立的社会秩序而并不是为了参加本质上是敌对的攻击而组织起来的。


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