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2017年高考英语备考:关系代词副词的区别

发布时间:2017-04-13 来源:新东方在线 发布人:继续

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  一、 关系代词和关系副词的区别

  1、关系代词(that, who, whom, whose, which)所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。

  例1. Is he the man who/that wants to see you?(who / that在从句中作主语,指人)

  例2. He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom / that在从句中作宾语,指人)

  例3. They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.(whose在句中作定语,指人)

  例4. Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.(whose在句中作定语,指物。若指物,它还可以同of which互换)

  例5. The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作carry的宾语,指物)

  2、关系副词(when, where, why, that)可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词 which"结构,因此常常和"介词 which"结构交替使用。

  例6. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.

  例7. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

  例8. His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.

  例9. He can’t find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.

  二、 判断用关系代词和关系副词

  方法1: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。请改错:

  1. This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

  2. I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。句1和句2的where, when都应改为which.。

  方法2: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),根据第一点(区别),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

  例10.This museum is ___ you visited a few days age?

  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one

  例11. This is the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

  A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one (答案:例1 D,例2 A)

  在例10中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

  而例11中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)。

  方法3:当先行词是all, everything, anything, nothing,the one, much, few, any, little等,或先行词是形容词最高级时,或在there be 句型中,或当先行行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that, 而不用which。

  例12. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.

  例13. The soldiers and their guns that we sent to the front were lost.

  方法4:在引导非限定性定语从句时,和在介词后不能用that,应用which。

  例14.(错) The tree, that (改为which)is four hundred years old, is very famous here.

  例15.We depend on the land from which we get our food.

  


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高一辅导 
高二辅导 
高中数学辅导 
高中辅导 

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