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考研英语真题研究之阅读理解常见错误选项特征

发布时间:2017-04-19 来源:新东方在线 发布人:too

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在没有将真题研究透彻的情况下,去做所谓的模拟题,是没有任何效果,甚至南辕北辙的。所以,将考研英语的真题仔细的研究,就变成了复习考研英语的至关重要的环节。

系列(一)

阅读理解常见错误选项特征

“错误选项”一定是大家最为痛恨的四个字。让无数的学员一次又一次为之拜倒。但是在大家狂骂错误选项无耻和出题人刁钻的时候,是不是忽视了一个很重要的问题就是:错误选项其实也是有必然的错的规律的,考研英语考了几十年,每年十五个错误选项,其实,出题人不论换过多少人,从测试学的角度来看,能够用来出错误选项的“花招”早就“黔驴技穷”了,因此如果我们把错误选项的命制规律深刻的研究了,就不会再怨天尤人了。

(一)与原文冲突

选项与原文表述内容不一致,是错误选项最常见的错误方式,但是若是把原文做最细微的改动,许多同学就很难发现,而这些细微的改动主要就是一些核心动词和形容词,希望大家引起重视。

00年#1(A)

(A)it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal.

与文章首句 A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap ,but , if properly handled, it may become a driving force.相反。

06年#39(C)

(C)misery should be enjoyed rather than denied.

原文最后一段提到:Today , surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need art to tell us , as religion once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it.

显然两处阴影处是冲突的。

07年#24(C)

(C)the role of talent tends to be overlooked.

与原文最后一段:Their work makes a rather startling assertion : the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated. 冲突。

(二)包含无关内容

原文是我们做出正确答案的唯一依据,正确选项的设置方式也常表现为将原文同义改写。错误选项也正是利用了这个特征,在改写的同时,添加了一些原文并未出现的内容,使得选项具备强干扰性。

00年#1(D)

(D)the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

00年#2(C)

(C)machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions.

00年#3 (C)

(C)The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

02年#48 (B)

(B)interact with human beings verbally.

上述选项标注部分都是添加了原文当中没有出现过的内容,而且也不是原文相应内容的统一改写。

(三)答非所问 照抄原文

这类错误选项是考生常见,也是常犯错误的设置方式。具体表现为将原文当中出现的原话,但是不能回答题干的内容设置出来以迷惑考生。对于那些僵化的理解“正确选项为原文的同意改写”的同学,极具杀伤力!

02年#48(A)

(A) fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.

原文第二段最后一句话为:….there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy….  尽管此选项与原文内容一致,但并不能回答题目所提出的问题(According to the text ,what is beyond man’s ability now is to design a robot that can__问题是想问一个超出机器人能力范围的内容。),所以仍旧为错误选项。

03年#41(A)(C)

(A) receive support from fans like Donovan

(C) restored many common pastimes

这两个选项虽然也是原文第一段提到过的原话,但是并不是题目所提问的目的,在之前的篇章讲过,所有的题目,话题都要和主题相关都是为主题服务的。这篇文章的主题为“网路间谍”。因此,正确选项一定要选和主题相关的“(B)remolded the intelligence services”

03年#56(B)

(B)Americas enjoy a higher life quality than ever before.

此选项也是文章第一段原话“Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago.”的改写。但是还是之前讲过的逻辑思路,所有的题目都要为主题服务,不能就着原话本身的含义来选。本文主题是对美国的医疗过度投资的负评价,因此全文第一句话的目的一定是为此主题服务的,因此(C)Americans are over-confident of their medical technology. 是必然正确的,因为over-confident 是明显的负评价词。

06年#24 (A)(C)

(A)To prove their popularity around the world.

(C) To give examples of successful immigrants.

这两个选项尽管都属于文章所传递的信息,但是并不能回答提名的问题,题目是典型的举例证明题(why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph2?),题目就是要我们选一个能够说明主题的选项,即,同化文化的成功影响力!因此 选择(B)

(四)错误比较

经过对于真题的研究发现,比较级的内容在文章当中出现,经常作为考点,而到了选项当中出现,却常作为强干扰选项,主要表现为:添加了原文没有的比较内容;与原文比较的内容或方向不一致。因此在选择当中的比较级,大家要特别关注。

00年#1(B)

(B) its domestic market was eight times lager than before.

原文:When United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale.

两处比较级显然不一致。

01年#55(A)

(A)getting worse because of the Internet.文章当中无此比较内容。

05年#30(D)

(D) both of them have turned form bad to worse. 文章当中没有此比较级。

06年#32(D)

(D)the number of large predators dropped faster in new fisheries than in the old.

原文:第二段最后两句:According to their latest paper published in Nature , the biomass of large predators. In a new fishery is reduced on average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation. In some long-fished areas , it has halved again since then.

这两句话只是比较了下降数量多少,而不是如(D)中所表述的“快慢”

06年#36(A)

(A)poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music.原文当中无此比较。

(五)修饰词程度不匹配

为何有些错误选项历年的考生都会去选择?表明这种选项一定是强干扰项,如何设计一个强干扰项?就是让它离正确选项最近,改动最小!因此,最常见的方式就是在中心词前面的修饰词做文章,请广大学员一定注意此类选项,具体设置方式通常为:“名词前的动词;动词,形容词前的副词程度与原文不一致”

01年#56 (C)

(C)can soon wipe out world poverty (原文当中没有此修饰词)

02年#56(C)

(C)the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide (原文当中没有此修饰词)

03年#53(B)

(B)there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide (原文当中没有此修饰词)

08年#37(A)

(A)DNA technology has been widely applied to history research. (原文当中没有此修饰词)

(六)移花接木

所谓“移花接木”即是把文章出现的两处没有任何关系的内容连接到一起,形成一个看上去很像原文内容的选项,这种选项错误很隐蔽,尤其是对于那些本身就靠“朦胧法”做题的考生来说,是很具有干扰性的。

01年#65(B)

(B) WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs.

文章当中有两处提到上述内容,但是并不是一句话内,而是分开的不同内容提到的。第一处第四段首句 Examples of be benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. 第二处为该段 The mergers of telecom companies,such as WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. 这两句话没有任何的关系,选择仅仅是把两句话提到的内容安排到了一起。

05年#25(D)

(D)Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.

原文第四段为:In the wild, they are a cooperative, group-living species.  such cooperation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated.

选项显然是将两处内容连接到了一起的。

01年#55(D)

(D)consider positive today.

原文第一段最后为: What was less visible then, however, were the new , positive forces that work against the digital divide.也就是答案将原文当中没有出现在一起的, Digital divide ;positive forces 连在一起了。

(七)非直接等价

所谓非直接等价就是将并不是因果关系的两个原文出现的内容连接到了一起,造成都是原文内容的假象,但原文当中并没有类似因果关系。

05年#33(B)

(B)develop into happy dreams.

原文当中是第三段有类似表述:Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day.

也就是说原文意思是 negative feelings 在睡眠早期变成 bad dreams, bad dreams 演变成 happier ones. 若选(B)会演变成 negative feelings generated during the day tend to develop into happy dreams.显然与原文不符。

07年#39 (D)

(D)appreciate the economic value of trust.

原文第四段 surely it should be obvious to the dimmest executive that trust, that most valuable of economic asset, is easily destroyed and hugely expensive to restore-and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a company letting sensitive personal data get into the wrong hands.

(D) 选项并不是 提干所提问的(According to Paragraph 4 what puzzles the author is that some bosses fail to)内容,而只是原文中 that 的定语成分。不构成因果关系,所以不能选。

(八)时态变化

广大学员看到考研没有了专门的语法题,确实高兴了一阵,但是语法这个项目,尤其是时态的变化,会在阅读当中得到考察,因此关注选项的时态是否与原文一致,就成为我们分辨错误选项的一个重要的突破点。具体范例如下:

00年#2(B)

(B)semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises.

原文第二段最后一句原话为: For a while it looked as though(看上去好像) the making of semiconductors , which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age , was going to(将要成为) be he next casualty. 答案与原文时态显然不符合。

03年#44(A)

(A)Straitford’s prediction about Ukraine has proved true.

原文第四段原话为: As soon as (一……就……表示还未发生)that report runs, we’ll suddenly get 500 new internet sign-ups from Ukraine…. 显然答案时态与原文不符合。

以上八种错误选项是十分有代表性的设置方式,也几乎囊括了所有的错误选项的设置逻辑,请学员仔细研究,并加以利用,不要再犯类似的错误。

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