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英语四级六级阅读天天练(05)

发布时间:2017-05-11 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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小编前言:作为四六级考试的重要题型,阅读的练习不可小觑。 小编每日精选《卫报》《时代周刊》等外刊上的精华文章,带你扩大视野,积累词汇,提高阅读速度!

【今日阅读推荐】本篇阅读材料“如何提高学习的毅力”选自《Time》(原文标题:How to Increase Your Stamina to Learn 2013.3.25)。

A lot has been said lately about the phenomenon of MOOCs, or massive open online courses. But here’s one fact you may not have heard in all the hype: less than 10% of people who sign up for a MOOC actually complete it. That’s right: less than 10%.

This extraordinarily high attrition rate is a source of concern in the education world. A recent survey of chief academic officers at colleges around the country, for example, reported that the majority of them believe that “lower retention rates for online courses remain a barrier to the growth of online instruction.” Others point out that plenty of people drop out of traditional, in-person courses of instruction as well. This latter point only emphasizes the scope of the issue, however, which we can frame in this way: Why do we (and our children, and our students, and our employees) so often give up on learning?

Most of us have set out to learn something — a foreign language, a new sport, a skill that we need for work or one that we’d just like to have — only to fall well short of our goal. The rise of MOOCs (and of DIY sites, and how-to videos, and indeed all of the information-rich Internet) has shown that it’s technologically possible for us to learn anywhere, at any time. Now we’ve got to get to work on the psychological side of the equation.

But a brute application of willpower isn’t the answer. We need to be clever in our cultivation of persistence, even “stealthy” (to borrow an apt term from a recent journal article on social-psychological interventions in education). We must outsmart our tendency to get too busy, too tired, too intent on catching the latest episode of Downton Abbey. Below, three ways to improve the odds that you’ll finish the learning you start.

Bring People With You
Why do you think most college students go to class? To see their friends. By contrast, much of the learning we do as adults — whether it’s with an online course or a how-to manual or a video tutorial — we do on our own, accountable to no one. This makes it all too easy to quit. Some online courses are beginning to incorporate social media into their design, but connections forged this way are likely to be weak, especially at first. Better to recruit people you already know, whose opinions you care about, to sign up for that course or commit to a series of lessons along with you.

Use Data to Motivate Yourself
Maybe you’ve heard about the Quantified Self movement — the oddly addictive practice of tracking every calorie consumed or burned, every minute spent online or asleep. This practice of using data to monitor and motivate yourself can be applied to learning endeavors too. Often we get discouraged in our attempts to educate ourselves because we can’t see the progress we’re making. Keeping a record of your learning helps make that forward motion visible. It’s important to put numbers to your efforts — hours practiced, problems completed, pages read — and it can be helpful to represent those numbers visually, in a graph or chart.

Redesign Your ‘Choice Architecture’
In their terrific book Nudge, authors Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein note that “small and apparently insignificant details can have major impacts on people’s behavior.” Often it’s not an insurmountable obstacle preventing us from pursuing learning, but rather a few minor hurdles that we never get around to addressing. Now is the time to print out that application, to schedule that first session with a coach. Sometimes getting over the initial hump is all you need.

Or maybe you’re actually good at getting started, and it’s the middle and end stages where you bog down. As Thaler and Sunstein remark, “Never underestimate the power of inertia.” But, they add, “that power can be harnessed” — harnessed to achieve your learning goals. This means making learning the default and not learning the more effortful or expensive option. Work with a music teacher who charges you for the lesson whether you show up or not (if you’ve paid for it, you will). Schedule a meeting to demonstrate your new skill to your colleagues (it’s easier to learn it than to back out). “Choice architecture” is what Thaler and Sunstein call the context in which we make decisions. Make sure that the structures you build support learning — in the short term, and over the long haul.

【重点单词及短语】

attrition rate  损耗率;退学率

retention rate  保留率;留购率

drop out  退出;退学

set out to 打算;着手

fall short of  达不到;缺乏

insurmountable a. 不能克服的;难以对付的

get around to 抽出时间做;开始考虑做

bog down 停顿;陷入困境

inertia n. 惯性;惰性

harness v. 治理;驾驭

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1. What's the fact of MOOCs according to the passage?

2. What should we do to increase the stamina to learn?

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