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英语四级六级阅读练习(37)

发布时间:2017-05-18 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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小编寄语:熟悉四六级阅读理解题型的同学应该都了解,英语四六级考试阅读理解材料大多选自《时代》《卫报》《今日美国》等外刊。要想阅读理解这部分拿到高分,必须在平常多阅读,掌握新词汇,锻炼阅读速度。但对于很多同学来说,如何每日在浩瀚的互联网世界寻找合适的阅读材料进行分析解读是一项很耗时间的事情。为此, 英语每日精选《卫报》《时代》等外刊上的文章供大家进行阅读练习。

【今日阅读推荐】本篇阅读材料“为什么挣扎更好?”选自《时代》(原文标题:Why Floundering Is Good 2012.4.25)。如果大家觉得比较简单,就当作泛读材料了解了解,认识几个新单词或新表达方式也不错。如果大家觉得这些材料理解上有难度,不妨当做挑战自己的拔高训练,希望大家都有进步^^

Trying to figure something out on your own before getting help actually produces better results than having guidance from the beginning.

Call it the “learning paradox”: the more you struggle and even fail while you’re trying to master new information, the better you’re likely to recall and apply that information later.

The learning paradox is at the heart of “productive failure,” a phenomenon identified by Manu Kapur, a researcher at the Learning Sciences Lab at the National Institute of Education of Singapore. Kapur points out that while the model adopted by many teachers and employers when introducing others to new knowledge — providing lots of structure and guidance early on, until the students or workers show that they can do it on their own — makes intuitive sense, it may not be the best way to promote learning. Rather, it’s better to let the neophytes wrestle with the material on their own for a while, refraining from giving them any assistance at the start. In a paper published earlier this year in the Journal of the Learning Sciences, Kapur and a co-author, Katerine Bielaczyc, applied the principle of productive failure to mathematical problem solving in three schools in Singapore.

With one group of students, the teacher provided strong “scaffolding” — instructional support — and feedback. With the teacher’s help, these pupils were able to find the answers to their set of problems. Meanwhile, a second group was directed to solve the same problems by collaborating with one another, absent any prompts from their instructor. These students weren’t able to complete the problems correctly. But in the course of trying to do so, they generated a lot of ideas about the nature of the problems and about what potential solutions would look like. And when the two groups were tested on what they’d learned, the second group “significantly outperformed” the first.

The apparent struggles of the floundering group have what Kapur calls a “hidden efficacy”: they lead people to understand the deep structure of problems, not simply their correct solutions. When these students encounter a new problem of the same type on a test, they’re able to transfer the knowledge they’ve gathered more effectively than those who were the passive recipients of someone else’s expertise.

In the real world, problems rarely come neatly packaged, so being able to discern their deep structure is key. But, Kapur notes, none of us like to fail, no matter how often Silicon Valley entrepreneurs praise the salutary effects of an idea that flops or a start-up that crashes and burns. So, he says, we need to “design for productive failure” by building it into the learning process. Kapur has identified three conditions that promote this kind of beneficial struggle. First, choose problems to work on that “challenge but do not frustrate.” Second, provide learners with opportunities to explain and elaborate on what they’re doing. Third, give learners the chance to compare and contrast good and bad solutions to the problems. And to those students and workers who protest this tough-love teaching style: you’ll thank me later.

【重点单词及短语】

figure out 解决;算出;想出

at the heart of 位于……的中心

early on 在早期;从事;经营;继续下去

wrestle with 全力对付;努力克服

refrain from 抑制;克制;忍住

discern  v. 识别;领悟,认识

salutary  adj. 有益的,有用的;有益健康的

elaborate on 详细说明;阐明

Question time:

1. What is learning paradox?

2. What's the function of floundering according to the research in the passage?

 

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