当前位置:网校排名 > 新东方在线 > 新东方在线资讯 > 考研写作:几种主要信函的写法

直播课程
新东方在线

考研写作:几种主要信函的写法

发布时间:2017-05-22 来源:新东方在线 发布人:Too

新东方在线0元免费畅学窗口
英文书信主要分为事务书信和个人书信两种,前者是单位与单位之间或个人与单位之间来往的信件,后者是亲朋好友之间的来往信件。事务书信包括申请信、推荐信、求职信、订购信等等;个人书信包括慰问信、祝贺信、道歉信以及一般的个人信等等。在格式和语体方面,事务书信比较正规,而个人书信则比较随便。在这部分中,我们结合信函的实用程度和考研作文对篇幅的一般要求选取了五种我们认为有可能成为考研作文命题对象的信函。
⑴ 求职信
求职信是用来向某一单位求取一份工作的信函,它属于广义的申请信的一种。之所以将求职信与其他类型的申请信分开来写,是因为其目前应用的普遍性和重要性,因此希望考生给予足够的重视。
写求职信时,要注意以下几点:
首先,措辞要礼貌,对求职单位要加以一定的褒扬,并表示对该单位的向往之情,希望能到该单位工作。
第二,简洁、明了、具体地说明自己的能力和条件。因为求职信通常是跟简历一起寄给用人单位的,所以在信中提到自己的能力和条件时,不是要简单重复简历中已有的内容,而是要用简洁、明了、具体的语言提出自己特别突出的或者可能引起用人单位特别的注意的能力和条件。
第三,对于要求取的工作岗位,要特别写明,给用人单位一个考虑选择的机会。
第四,要突出招聘者的利益,不要一味强调自己的需要和期望。
求职信一般分为三个部分来写,至于分成几段,没有严格的要求。第一部分说明从哪里得到的关于这份工作的信息,又或者写信人只是投求职信碰碰运气。
第二部分主要是推销自己,表达自己对应聘职位的兴趣以及介绍自己的最突出的能力和条件。如果求职者对应聘职位没有太多的了解,可以特别表达一向愿意接受新挑战的愿望,并强调一下自己在适应新环境、处理人际关系方面的能力。
最后一部分当然是表达一下希望,例如希望能得到面试的机会。
下面给出一封齐头式的求职信,省略了信头和信内地址,从称呼开始。
Dear Sir or Madam:
I am writing in response to the advertisement you placed in the Sunday paper for a sales manager in your company. Your company has a reputation for producing high-quality products like Mandolin network system. I am interested in joining such a professional organization.
As you can see from the enclosed resume, my previous work in an export company has provided me with lots of opportunities to contact all kinds of customers and suppliers home and abroad. By communicating with them, I have got very familiar with the international trade and the current market. Besides, my educational training at university concentrated also on international trade which equipped me with a solid foundation in sales and trade.
As such, I believe that my service could be of great benefit to your company in terms of customer relation and new business connections.
I hope to have an opportunity to meet your human resource manager in order to let you know more about me. I enclose a resume and could be available for an interview at your convenience. Looking forward to hearing from you and thank you for your consideration.
Sincerely yours,
J.S. Wu
⑵ 其他申请信
当一个人想得到某种机会或某些东西,如申请得到奖学金、求学、申请出国签证等,往往通过申请信来请求。
写申请信的时候一般应注意以下几点:
首先,语气要诚挚友好,措辞要严谨,千万不要表现出强求的意思。
第二,对于申请的内容和原因一定要写得非常清楚,不能含糊。
第三,尽管不能表现出强求的意思,但是期望得到的心情一定要表达出来。
申请信如何分段,也没有严格的规定,其内容一般应包括以下几个部分:明确是在写申请;申请的具体内容和缘由;自己的情况和条件;提出要求,如回信、面试等等。每一部分都要做到清晰、简明。
对于不同的申请内容,在介绍自己情况的时候也要有不同的侧重。例如在求学信中,应比较侧重介绍自己已有的学位及专业情况;在申请留学经济资助的信中,应着重介绍自己的学业及学术水平,因为国外很多学校颁发奖学金是以此为标准的。
以下是两封申请信,第一封是求学信,另一封是申请留学资助的,第一封信用的是齐头式,第二封信用的是缩进式,信头和信内地址都已省略。
Dear Sir or Madam:
I am writing to apply for admission to your university to pursue my M.S. degree. I have read the annual prospectus issued by your university and found that it has the best graduate program of chemistry. I am greatly interested in the program.
I graduated in 1997 from Beijing University, majoring in Chemistry and holding a B. S. degree. At university, I took many fundamental courses in Chemistry and my English is excellent as I had served as the head of English Association for two years. Since then I have been teaching Chemistry in Beijing Normal University. Through my teaching experience, I have not only deepened my understanding in this field, but mastered many complicated research skills as well.
Two of my former professors and the present dean of our department have kindly written letters of recommendation for me, as enclosed with this letter.
Could you please send me the necessary forms and any information about financial aid in your program?
Thank you very much. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Sincerely yours,
Fan Wei
Dear Sir or Madam:
I wish to apply for admission to your department as a graduate student. I am writing to ask whether it will be possible for you to grant me a full scholarship, considering my academic record and the fact that I have no relatives or friends in America who can act as my sponsor.
I completed a four-year course in chemistry at Beijing University last June. During my four years in the university, I have passed all the required courses of study with satisfactory marks. With Chemistry as my major, I minored in Physics and Mathematics. Enclosed herewith is my transcript from the department concerned.
My English is very good. I have been learning English since early childhood with the help of my father who is a professor of English in Fudan University, Shanghai. I therefore believe that I will not have language difficulties while studying in the United States.
I should be most grateful if you would give my request favorable consideration. Thank you very much and look forward to your reply.
Sincerely yours,
Wu Li
最后列举一些写申请信常用的表达法,供考生参考:
I am writing to you because I wish to …
I am writing to ask whether you could send me some information about your college and the application forms …
I am a graduate from …,I am very interested in …
Please send me all relevant information concerning the program you offer.
I should be most grateful to you if you would send me …
I would appreciate very much if you could send me …
Thank you for your consideration and I look forward to your favorable reply.
Enclosed in this letter please find three letters of recommendation and a certified copy of my transcript.
⑶ 推荐信
推荐信是求职或者求学所需要的材料。写推荐信的人一般是有身份、有地位的人士,而且必须对申请者比较了解。最好是申请者原单位的领导或资历较深的同事,或者是学校里的教授、本专业的专家等等。
写推荐信应该注意以下几点:
首先,推荐人在写信前应该详细了解聘方或学校的要求、工作性质、专业特点等有关情况,有针对性地介绍并推荐申请者。
第二,推荐信要多写优点,充分肯定成绩,语气要积极、热情。但为了客观起见,也可适当提一下申请者的不足之处,但一定要说明这种不足之处是可以通过学习和锻炼得到克服的。
第三,推荐信的篇幅不宜过长,但也不能三言两语敷衍了事,一般以250到350字为宜。
第四,推荐信的称呼一般用To whom it may concern或者Dear sir or Madam。而且推荐信通常由推荐人直接寄给用人单位或学校。
推荐信一般分成三段到四段,主要包括三个方面的内容:推荐人与被推荐人之间的关系;被推荐者的能力、品质和优点,在这部分至少应该写两个优点,但最多不要超过四个,而且如果能够用具体的例子来证明,效果会更好;建议录取被推荐者。
下面是一封推荐信:
To whom it may concern:
I sincerely recommend Ms. Zhang Chen to participate in your program and researching group. I am a department manager in Guangyou Trade Company and Ms. Zhang had been worked in my department for nearly three years.
As her direct supervisor, I have a good understanding in her working ability. She was very careful and sensitive to figures. Her monthly statistics and report forms were always the best of the company. And as I knew more about her, I found that she was very much interested in accounting. So I provided her with the opportunity to work with the experienced accountant in our company so that she would be able to learn from him.
What I appreciate most is her diligence and the ability to learn quickly. By self-study, she passed the exam of accountant qualification. I must admit that it was not an easy task, but she managed it through hard work. Since she had already had a deep understanding in this area, I asked her to be responsible for the computerization of the accounting system in our company. It was within my expectation that she accomplished it successfully.
And now, as she has determined that she would choose accounting as her life career, I would like to lend my full support in her effort. Therefore, I strongly recommend you to accept Ms. Zhang in your program. I believe that thanks to all her virtues, she would make herself a good student in your prestigious program and make a good contribution to it. And I really hope that I will have the opportunity to cooperate with her again after she got the MACC degree.
Thank you very much!
Yours sincerely,
Li Tong
Department Manager of Guangyou Trade Company
最后列举几个写推荐信常用的表达法,供考生参考:
I proudly introduce … to your attention.
I am certain that … will build a bright career with your instruction.
I would safely say that … will be excellent with your program.
I have no doubt that … will make a strong candidate for your program.
… is surely the right person for your program.
⑷ 邀请信
邀请信分为两种:一种属于个人信函,例如邀请某人共进晚餐、参加宴会、观看电影、出席典礼等。另一种邀请信则属于事务信函,一般是邀请参加会议、学术活动等等。
第一种邀请信邀请的对象一般是朋友、熟人,所以内容格式上的要求都比较松,可以写得随便一些。只要表明邀请的意图,说明活动的内容、时间、地点等等。但既然是邀请信,那么就一定要在信中表达非常希望对方能够参加或者出席的愿望。这种邀请信的篇幅可以非常短,下面以一封邀请看电影的短信为例:
Dear Jane,
We have four tickets for a famous film shown at Guangming Cinema, The Longest Day, Friday, the ninth. Will you join us? We’ll be looking for you at eight sharp Friday night in front of the cinema, so don’t disappoint us!
Warmest regards.
Alice
第二种邀请信一般由会议或学术活动的组委会的某一个负责人来写,以组委会的名义发出,而且被邀请者通常也是属于比较有威望的人士。因此,这类邀请信的措辞要相对正式一些,语气要热情有礼。
这一类邀请信通常要包括以下内容:首先表明邀请对方参加的意图以及会议或学术活动的名称、时间、地点;然后要对被邀请者的威望和学术水平等表示推崇和赞赏,表明如果被邀请者能够接受邀请,会给会议或者活动带来很好的影响;接着要说明会议或活动的相关事宜,最好是能引起对方兴趣的事宜;当然不能忘了表达希望对方能够参加的诚意;最后还要请收信人对发出的邀请做出反馈,如确认接受邀请。
下面是一封邀请对方参加学术会议的信函:
Dear Professor Wang,
On behalf of the Ohio State University and the IEEE Computer Society, I would be very pleased to invite you to attend and chair a session of the forthcoming 2004 International Conference on Parallel Data Processing to be held in Bellaire, Michigan, from October 25 to October 28, 2004.
You are an internationally acclaimed scholar and educator. Your participation will be among the highlights of the Conference.
We sincerely hope that you could accept our invitation. As you know, this is the 10th anniversary of the Conference and we plan to make it a truly international meeting. We have accepted many papers from several foreign countries, including two from China.
If you can come, please let us know as soon as possible, since we have to prepare the final program soon. We are looking forward to your acceptance.
Sincerely yours,
Peter White
无论是收到哪种邀请信都要复信,明确表示接受与否。而且无论接受与否都要对邀请者表示感谢。接受邀请的回信一般包含以下内容:首先感谢对方的邀请,并重述邀请信中的主要内容;然后愉快地表示接受邀请,并简要说明自己的打算;最后表示期待赴会和与对方见面的心情。
下面是一封接受邀请的信,与上面第一封邀请信相对应:
Dear Alice,
Thank you very much for your invitation. It will be great pleasure for me to join you on Friday for the wonderful film. I will arrive at the cinema before eight. I look forward to meeting you on Friday.
Thank you for thinking of me.
Yours,
Jane
谢绝邀请的回信一般包含以下几方面的内容:首先还是要对对方的邀请表示感谢;然后具体说明自己无法接受邀请的原因,并对无法出席表示遗憾;最后表达自己的祝愿,即祝愿自己未能参加的会议或者活动能够顺利进行。
下面是一封谢绝邀请的信,与上面的第二封邀请信相对应:
Dear Professor White,
Many thanks for your letter dated 15th August, inviting me to attend and chair a session of the forthcoming 2004 International Conference on Parallel Data Processing to be held in Bellaire, Michigan, from October 25 to 28, 2004.
Much to my regret, I shall not be able to honor the invitation because I have been suffering from a disease since this summer. I am firmly advised that it would be unwise to undertake any distant and long travel in the near future.
I feel very sad to miss the opportunity of meeting you and many others in the field of Computer Science. I wish the conference a complete success.
Faithfully yours,
Wang Xuan
⑸ 感谢信
感谢信属于个人信函,是用来对馈赠礼物或曾经得到某人的关怀、照顾表示感谢,在西方国家用得比较普遍。感谢信在格式上没有很严格的要求,主要是要写得真挚,表达诚挚的感激之情,不能给人一种草率的印象。
由于感谢的对象、原因和内容不同,感谢信的内容也会有所区别。例如,对朋友赠送礼物表示感谢的信,一定要提到所赠的礼物以及自己对礼物的喜爱之情;又如因为曾在对方家里小住而写的感谢信,一定要提到在对方家里居住时候的感受。但是,无论如何,一封感谢信通常都包括感谢的原因、内容以及诚挚的感激知情。
下面给出两封简短的感谢信,一封是对朋友赠送礼物表示感谢,另一封是在对方家里小住过一段时间,离开后表达感谢的信。
Dear Sandy,
When you left a package for me yesterday, I had difficulty waiting until my birthday to open it.
I don’t know how to thank you for such an attractive present. It is something that will give me pleasure for a long time to come.
Please accept my sincere thanks and best wishes.
Cordially,
Susan
Dear Professor Anthony,
Thank you for a delightful stay.
Your home is lovely, your meals delectable, and I enjoyed the fun and companionship. I am still thinking about it and enjoying it in retrospect.
Many thanks again for your warm hospitality.
Cordially,
Tom
⑹ 咨询信
咨询信指的是用于了解信息、资料和情况等等的信件。写咨询信要注意以下几个问题:
第一,从措辞上来讲,一定要有礼貌,要比较客气地说清楚你想了解什么或者有什么要求。
第二,所提的问题一定要具体、明确,不能含糊其辞,否则会让对方感到无从回答。
第三,如果同时有好几个问题需要对方回答,可以考虑分段写;如果问题比较简单,则无需分段,但一定要将每个问题分别写清楚。
第四,一定要记得在信中向对方表示感谢。
写咨询信的时候,一般分三个部分来写。首先说明自己的情况,写咨询信的目的;第二步讲明自己要咨询的问题,要简洁明晰;在新的结尾要向对方表示感谢。此外,记得要注明联系地址与电话,以便对方答复。
下面是一封咨询信的范例:
To: London Woolen Products
From: Angel Clothes Store
As we plan our Fall inventory, we are again in market to buy woolens. We are principally interested in the traditional sweater and would like to request a sample.
Please also send information on any other knitwear that your company produces and a current price list.
If you plan to take part in the Beijing Trade Fair at the end of this month, please inform us of your stand number so that we can contact you at that time. Please note our new address and telephone number.
Thank you in advance for your attention.
Sincerely,
……
⑺订购信
订购信一般用于订购某种货物或机票、车票,属于事务信件。在书写订购信的时候,最重要的是要清新明白地说明所要订购的对象的数量、价格、规格等等,如果是机票、车票等,则须说明出发地、目的地、出发时间等。此外,写明你自己的名字、地址、邮编,以及你期望的送货方式等也是非常重要的。要避免写冗长的句子,因为此类信函以传达信息为主,所以能让对方明白你的意图是最重要的。
下面是一封订购飞机票的信函:
Dear Sir or Madam:
I am on an urgent mission and want to get to Hong Kong as soon as possible. Please reserve for me a seat in the plane leaving Guangzhou for Hong Kong at 8 a.m. tomorrow. A seat by the window in the economic section is preferred. I shall be very grateful if you would deliver the ticket to Room 418 of the Baiyun Hotel where I am staying.
If there is no seat available at 8 a.m. tomorrow, please inform me as soon as possible, so that I can change a flight.
Thank you very much!
Yours faithfully,
Steve Brown
⑻ 投诉信
投诉信一般是针对质量低劣的产品或者服务,其送寄对象应该是对方主管部门的负责人。写投诉信的目的是为了让对方同情你的遭遇或者碰到的问题,继而给出你所期望的解决方法。因此,写这类信件最重要的一点是要实事求是,一定要遵守“简明、公正”的原则,切勿夸大其词,引起对方的反感。
投诉信中应该包含的内容有:你所投诉的问题;该问题给你造成的不良后果;与投诉有关的重要依据,如商品简要说明、购买日期地点等;你所希望的解决方法和最后结果。此外,还可以向对方建议解决问题的最后日期,并表示对所投诉问题的妥善解决充满信心。
投诉信一般可分为三段:第一段说明信的主要意思,即提出要解决的问题,以及解决问题的重要性;第二段可以解释一下详细的情况,提出与投诉有关的重要依据;最后一段一般是提建议,说出你所期望的解决方法。
以下是一封样信:
Dear Sir,
Enclosed is one sample of the envelopes which your delivery truck left in our office yesterday. We wish, however, to exchange them for the correct size, or obtain a refund.
When our supply secretary selected and purchased official envelopes in your store last week on December 12, she asked that size L be sent to our office. The size we received is small, and of course it does not serve our needs. The sales receipt is #3968, dated December 12, written by salesclerk #189.
Please send us the correct size L envelopes in exactly the same style and color, or if this is not available now, cash refund of $ 50.50. Thank you very much.
Sincerely yours,

以上是八种我们认为有可能考到的信函类型,当然也有可能在考试中出现不在其列的信函类型,但是相信考生可以根据我们所给的这些讲解和示例推出一定的规律来应对。需要指出的是,为了给大家一个比较完整的内容和结构上的示例,以上的样信在字数上并不都符合100词的要求。但各位考生在考试时一定不能忽略字数上的要求,因为这也是判分点之一。结构和格式尽可以参考以上的样文,字数上还请考生自行把握。


热门推荐:

考研网校哪个好
新东方考研辅导班
考研培训班
考研培训机构哪个好
考研英语培训班
文都考研网校
北京考研培训班

上一篇:从分析句子开始 提高考研英语阅读能力

下一篇:新东方老师:考研英语的全方位分析1

相关阅读

老师推荐

扩展阅读