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英语四六级阅读之精读秘诀

发布时间:2017-05-24 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young

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四六级考委会公告明确指出,阅读理解部分测试学生在不同层面上的阅读理解能力,包括理解篇章或段落的主旨大意和重要细节、综合分析、推测判断以及根据上下文推测词义等能力。在前期的教研课堂中(《泛读技巧篇》请戳这里), 英语教研已经教会大家利用略读技巧获取文章的主旨大意,并通过查读技巧快速锁定关键信息,那么接下来应如何分析关键信息、做出推理判断呢?本期教研课堂将带领大家通过精读技巧来解决这两大难题。

一、抓住重点,综合分析

做阅读题时,首先需要根据题干中的关键字在文中找到对应的关键段落,有些同学能很幸运地做到这一点,然后就开始非常虔诚地、逐字逐句地阅读整个段落。但是读完之后,依旧是丈二和尚摸不着头脑:“天哪,这段内容在讲些什么呀?”之所以会有这样的疑问,多半是因为没有准确地对内容进行结构分析,也没有理清其中的逻辑关系。阅读文章时,需要带着“有色眼镜”区别对待不同的内容,千万不要一视同仁。例如,对于客观描述只需略读,有点印象即可;而对于表达作者意图的句子,则要仔细阅读。接下来就让教研君告诉大家如何“厚此薄彼”吧。

A. 区分主要信息与次要信息

主要信息也就是段落的中心思想,常以主题句的形式出现,一般位于段落之首,也可位于段落之末。次要信息是指说明中心思想的细节,紧跟在主题句之后或段落结论句之前。阅读时,应首先找出主题句。只有抓住了主题句,才能正确理解整段的含义。例如:

On June 17, 1774, the officials from Maryland and Virginia held a talk with the Indiansof the Six Nations. The Indians were invited to send boys to William and Mary College. In aletter the next day they refused the offer as follows:

本段中,第一、二句描述的是一个具体事件,信息量不大,可略看,而只需对划线部分有一点印象即可;第三句话才表述了本文的话题:a letter… refused the offer。

B. 区分前期铺垫和真实意图

We know that you have a high opinion of the kind of learning taught in your colleges, and that the costs of living of our young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinced that you mean to do us good by your proposal; and we thank you heartily. But you must know that different nations have different ways of looking at things, and you will therefore not be offended if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same as yours.

本段第一、二句用的句型为We know that…和We are convinced that…,在文中起的是前期铺垫的作用,而第三句But引出的different nations have different ways of looking at things才是作者要表达的观点。这也是我们常说的but、however等转折词之后经常出考点。同学们在阅读时,一定要将注意力放在这些表达“真实意图”的句子上。

二、合理推断,得出结论

依据合理推断,得出正确结论,也是阅读中的重要一环。所谓合理推断是指对文章中提供的事实或暗示情况进行估价、评判或推理。结论的正确性既依赖于阅读材料中的事实能否充分说明其合理性,也取决于阅读文章时是否认真仔细、是否抓住要领。在分析过程中,还需要注意排除无关紧要的细节以及干扰推理的因素。例如:

In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters. (主题句) We're pushing our kids to get good grade, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I've twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids' college background as a prize demonstrating how well we've raised them. But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them. So we've contrived various justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn't matter much whether Aron and Nicole go to Stanford.

Q: Why does the author say that parents are the true fighters in the college-admissions wars?

A) They have the final say in which university their children are to attend.

B) They know best which universities are most suitable for their children.

C) They have to carry out intensive surveys of colleges before children make an application.

D) They care more about which college their children go to than the children themselves.

根据题目要求,同学们应获取的信息是,为什么在高考录取大战中家长们才是真正的战士?根据关键词true fighters定位到本段第一句,也是该段的主题句(In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fighters.)。随后作者提供了一些与选择无关的次要细节(第二句)。做题时,应根据要求首先排除这些无关细节,节约时间。然后排除干扰推理的因素,如原文中提到survey the battlefield(第三句),貌似与选项C中carry out intensive surveys相匹配,然而读到第五句时(But we can't acknowledge that our obsession is more about us than them),才恍然发现之前的第二、三、四句都只是铺垫信息,作者的真实目的是想表达“我们对于上大学的痴迷程度远大于孩子们”,因此同学们可以得到这样的结论“之所以说家长才是高考录取大战中的真正战士,是因为家长比孩子们更关心选择哪所大学”,与选项D的陈述一致。

看到这里,大家对于如何提高阅读效率,解答阅读理解题应有几分把握了吧?概括起来其实只有两点:一是通过泛读提高阅读速度,二是通过精读提高准确度。同学们做题时应将这两者巧妙地结合在一起,灵活运用,那么攻克阅读题则指日可待了。

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