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2016年大学英语四级语法复习:动词

发布时间:2016-03-23 来源:新东方在线 发布人:zolo

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2016年大学英语四级语法复习:动词

动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)

时态

1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.

I’ve been writing letters for an hour.

I’ve been sitting in the garden.

2)过去完成进行时(由had been ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作

I’d been working for some time when he called.

We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.

3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.

By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.

In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.

4)将来完成时(由shall/will have 过去分词构成): 将来某时已发生的事.

I shall have finished this one before lunch.

They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.

语态

可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:

He was said to be jealous of her success.

It was said that he was jealous of her success.

能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.

It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.

The ship is supposed to have been sunk.

担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:

Why are you driving so fast in this area You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)

双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态

双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.

He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.

Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.

宾补结构的被动语态:

She was called Big Sister by everybody.

Then he was made a squad leader.

He was considered quite qualified for the job.

The room was always kept clean and tidy.

短语动词

Vi adv

The plane took off two hours late.

Vi prep

They looked round the Cathedral.

Vi prep (有被动语态)

She’s looking after her sister’s children.

The children were always well looked after.

Vi adv prep

I began to look forward to their visits.

Vt O adv

Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.

The children were brought up by their mother.

They took him on.

Vt adv O (无被动语态)

I am trying to give up smoking.

Vt O prep

We talked Donald into agreement.

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