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北京成考补习班哪家好

发布时间:2017-01-16 来源:环球网校 发布人:zolo

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北京成考补习班哪家好

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成人高考英语语法归纳及练习(十七)

动词不定式(二)

第二节 动词不定式的用法

一、 不定式结构作主语

1. 不定式前置

1) Derive [A] mineral resources from [B] sedimentary rock [C] is a [D] major modern industrial activity.

2) in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time is realy a hard nut.

[A] To make high scores[B] To make low goal[C] To the high scores[D] Make the low goals

2. 上述形式一般情况不多见,作为考试的规范英语,如果不定式较长,显得头重脚轻,则可由代词“it”作形式主语(形式主语“it”不能由“that”或“this”等其他代词代替),而将不定式放到后面

It is really a hard nut to get high scores in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time.

3) John admitted that it's always difficult .

[A] for him being on time[B] being on time for him

[C] for him to be on time[D] on time for him

4) It is difficult for me [A] to be concentrating [B] while someone [C] is using [D] a vacuum cleaner.

3. 不定式后置的情况不仅限于动词是系动词,也适用于其他动词

It took us a great deal of efforts to finish that task.

It made him extremely happy to get contact with his family in Taiwan since they separated more than 40 years ago.

4. 不定式结构所表示的动作是谁做的,即不定式的逻辑主语,通常可以在特定的上下文中能看出,也可以通过带“for +名词短语”辨出

It is quite important for us to read good books during the period of general review(总复习)。

It is not difficult for those who study maths well to pass the exam.

5. 在某些形容词(如careless,clever,considerate, foolish, good, impolite, kind, naughty, nice, silly, stupid等)作表语时,不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语

It is very kind of you to help me./It is stupid of him to do such a silly thing.

间或也可用for + there to be 表示(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.

二、 不定式作宾语

不定式作宾语有两种:一种是及物动词后直接跟带to的不定式;另一种是“动词+疑问词+带to的不定式”

1. 动词+带to的不定式结构

只能跟动词不定式的动词,常见的有:afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, believe, care, claim, decide, decline(拒绝), demand, desire, determine, endeavor, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, long, manage, mean(想要), offer(表示愿意做…), pretend, promise, refuse, seek(试图), swear, undertake, wish(想要)等。

5) We refuse that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults(银行保管库) of this nation.

[A] to believe [B] to be belived[C] beliving

[D] have belived6) The green turtle has been known over 2,000 miles to return to a nesting site.

[A] in the navigating [B] the navigation [C] to navigate [D] navigation

7) For the [A] first time Venusian scientists managed landing [B] a satellite on the planet Earth, and it has been sending [C] back signals as well as [D] photographs ever since.

8) The day is past when Chinese universities and colleges to give high school diplomas to all who sit through four years of instruction, regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned.

[A] afforded[B] affording[C] to afford

[D] can afford从上例我们可以看出afford一般与can和can't或could和couldn't连用。

2. 动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式

这类动词常见的有:advise,decide, discuss, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, regard, remember, see, settle, teach, tell, think(=consider), understand, wonder等。这些疑问代(副)词有what, when, where, which, how, whether等,但不包括why,如:

He does not know how to go there

when to speak before strangers.

who(m) to visit.

which one to choose.

You can decide whether to go forward or stay here.

when to see a doctor.

I will show you what to do.

where to go.

how to deal with it.

其中,1)和2)中不定式的逻辑主语仍是句子的主语,分别为He和You;而3)中不定式的逻辑主语则不是句子的主语I,而是宾语you.

9) The director of this organization must know .

[A] to manage money, sell his product and beable to satisfy stockholders

[B] managing money, selling, and be able to satisfy the stockholders

[C] how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders

[D] money management, selling and being able to satisfy the stockholders

10) To tell you the truth, I really don't know how deal with a man like him.

[A] can I[B] well[C] to[D] much

3. 有时,不定式跟作主语时一样,可由it来代替,而把不定式放到后面去

He makes it a rule to take a walk before breakfast.

I think it interesting to play football while it is snowing hard.

We find it difficult to get everything ready before the time you require.

She cosiders it important to make friends with them.

I don't think it necessary to argue with them on this problem.

4. 有时THERE和TO BE连用表示“有”或“存在(某情况)”等

It is impossible for there to be any more.

Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the problem?

I expect there to be no argument about this?

有时在个别的介词后可用“疑问词+不定式结构”作其宾语

He has his own decision of how to do it.

三、 不定式作表语

1. 一种情况为主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)

To see is to believe/ To work means to earn a living.

2. 另一种情况主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式表语对主语起补充说明作用

His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future. / The boss's plan is to start building the skycraper immediately. / What I want to say is to get rid of the plan forever.

11) The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was providing [A] large uninterrupted floor areas [B] and to allow ample light [C] into the interior [D] .

12) The most important [A] thing is negociate [B] with them about [C] the future of [D] the plant.

四、 不定式作定语

1. 不定式作定语修饰名词或代词,它只能放在它所修饰的名词或代词后面。这时被修饰的名词与不定式之间有逻辑上的主谓关系

13) The flexibility of film allows the artist unstrained imagination to the animation of cartoon characters.

[A] to bring[B] bringing[C] is brought[D] brings

14) Billie Holiday's reputation as a great jazzblues singer rests on her ability emotional depth to her songs.

[A] be giving[B] are given[C] being given[D] to give 另外,有些词的不定式定语有主谓关系,如除了上述例句以外,还有些词常跟不定式作定语。这些词主要有decision (to make), (a) need (to eat), opportunity (to speak),reason(to learn a foreing language), time (to sth)等。

2. 动词不定式作定语往往有一层动宾关系,即所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语

15) Alice was having [A] trouble to control [B] the children because there were [C] so many [D] of them.

16) There are so many reference books for matriculation of postgraduate and I haven't decided which book .

[A] to buy[B] buy[C]to be buying[D] buying

17) Astronauts can be affected by loneliness for they have to sit in the spacecraft for weeks with very little and no one .

[A] to do … to talk[B] doing … to talk to

[C] to do … to talk to[D] doing… to talk

3. 因为不定式所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语,所以如果不定式动词是不及物动词,那么就要在动词后加上相应的介词

He has a lot of trifles to deal with./ I had got no place to live in./That girl has nothing to worry about./the subject to concentrate on. / He has a strict teacher to listen to. / She has four children to look after. / She had a sick mother to live with. / This is the very person to sell your ticket to.

18) Although the lecture had already been on for five minutes, I still was not able to find a chair .

[A] to sit[B] for to sit on[C] to sit on[D] for sitting

4. 一些表示企图、努力、倾向、目的、愿望、打算、能力、意向等意义的名词后面要求接不定式作其定语,如:ability, attempt, effort等

19) During [A] the 19th century scientists found [B] that when certain parts of the brain were damaged [C] men lost the ability doing [D] certain things.

20) What is new, however, is the scientific attempt whether other planets beyond our own have given birth to advanced civilizations.

[A] discover[B] discovers[C] discovering[D] to discover

21) Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort her?

[A] please [B] pleased [C] to please [D] having pleased

五、不定式作状语

注意作状语的动词不定式要与其逻辑主语在意义上和数上的一致。

1. 表示目的

22) its plans to promote disarmaments,the party has decided to establish a campaign headquarters with Benjamin Seaman as its leader.

[A]Although[B]To carry out[C]Except that[D] Make

23) pure lead,the lead ore is mined,then smelted,and finally refined.

[A] Obtaining[B] Being obtained[C] To obtain[D] It is obtained

24) When they met,Leonardo and his enemy were fighting .

[A]killed each other[B]killing each other[C]to be killed each other

[D]to kill each other

2. 表示结果,在这种情况下,不定式的逻辑主语也是全句的主语

He must be cripple not to walk by himself./It seems that the employee didn't sleep at all to be so sleepy in the early morning. / What have I done for you to deserve such an amount of money?

还有固定搭配的不定式表示结果:so…as to; such(…) as to …; enough to…; too…to…; in order to … 等

We have got so plenty of food as to treat our guests./ Is that room big enough to seat all of us?/ He is too young to fit that job.

3. 表示原因

It's very kind of you to say so. / I am pretty pleased to hear the news that you are elected as the president of the club. / I'm sorry to interrupt you. / They are quite surprised to see the great changes taking place in the area.

4. 伴随状况

在下列表示能力、愿望、倾向等语义的形容词后边也要接不定式:able(但其同义词“ capable”后面要接“of+动名词”),anxious, eager, glad, inclined(倾向于),liable, likely, pleased, ready等。

25) Certain [A] minerals are magnetic and are able to detected [B] by instruments that measure [C] differences in the Earth's magnetic fields [D] .

六、 在复合结构中的不定式

不定式的复合结构是指有些动词带宾语后再带上不定式,作宾语的补足语。前边已提到过,在这种结构中宾语是不定式的逻辑主语。

1. 有很多这样的动词可以跟宾语及其(或)补足语不定式,如:advise, allow, ask, enable, beg, cause, drive, encourage, expect, forbid, force, hate, get , intend, invite, like, permit, persuade, pretend, remind, say, teach, tell, trust, urge, want, warn等表示“致使”等意义

26) The company manager may enable the men who tend the machines a large panorama(全景) of possibilites.

[A] to see[B] see[C] seeing[D] seen

27) Did you intend us the new method?

[A] to use [B] using [C] our having used [D] the using of

28) The teacher encouraged good compositions.

[A] us write[B] us writing[C] us to write[D] our wrting

2. 在某些成语动词如 arrange for, call on, care for, count on, count upon, depend upon, long for, prepare for, prevail upon, rely on, vote for, wait for等后面,也可以跟宾语加不定式的复合结构

We are waiting for the bus to come./ They voted for Wang Gang to be the monitor. / Don't count on me to do that.

3. 另外,表示感觉的动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe和have, let, make后的宾语可接不带to的不定式(help后不定式可带to也可不带to)

29) I often heard him that his family was well descended.

[A] said[B] say[C] to say[D] to be said

30) We must have a person them build the house.

[A] see[B] to see[C] will see[D] shall see

31) You would become irritated [A] if you watched [B] the correspondence to pile up [C] on your desk day by day [D] .

4. 表示心理状态的动词像consider, declare, find, prove, think, know , believe, discover, feel(=think), imagine, judge, pretend, suppose, understand等词的宾语补足语不定式一般是to be(或动词的完成时态)

32) “You've been taking a lot of nice photographs.”Thanks. I'm considering a professional photographer.“

[A] becoming[B] about become[C] to become[D] over becoming

而且,在consider, declare, find, prove, think等动词后的to be 是可以省去的。如: She considered me a scholar. / They found him gulty.

七、不定式的完成式、进行式和完成进行式:这三类在考研题中出现的频率很高,要特别注意不定式的这三种形式

1. 如果不定式所表示的动作与主要谓语所表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生或发生在主要谓语之后,那么用不定式的一般形式

He received a warm welcome from the Australians and from his family who had flown there to meet him.

In 1967, he arrived back in England, where a quarter of a million people were waiting to welcome him.

After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.

Now suddenly she began to sob, holding herself in as if weeping were a disgrace.

2. 如果不定式所表示的动作(状态)发生在主要谓语动词或特定的某时间之前,那么不定式就要用其完成式

She feels relaxed to have finished writing her thesis before the deadline.

33) The Vikings are believed America.

[A] to have discovered[B] in discovering[C] to discover[D] to have been discovered

34) The students were to at the auditorium before 1:30 pm, but the lecture was cancelled at the last minute.

[A] assembled [B] have assembled [C] assembling [D] be assembled

35) He was to the new ambassador, but he fell ill.

[A] having telephoned[B] have telephoned[C] has telephoned[D] telephoning

3. 不定式进行式表示主要谓语动词所表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在发生

When he came in, I happened to be doing my experiment in the lab.

Why do you stand here? You are supposed to be working in the workshop.

4. 不定式完成进行式表示其动词所代表的动作,在主要谓语动词所代表的动作之前一直在进行

The students from the Department of Sociology are said to have been investigating the possibility of producing the new product.

They are quite happy to have been cooperating harmoniously with us till now.

八、不定式的被动形式

当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,这个不定式要用被动式,包括它的一般式和完成式

36) Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed blown off the mountain.

[A]to have been[B]to be[C]that it was[D]that it had been

37) For twelve years, Spanish censorship did not allow Lorca's name or his works .

[A] to mention; to be published[B] to be mentioned; to publish

[C] being mentioned; being published[D] to be mentioned; to be published

38) There is,it seems [A] , no [B] limit to the satisfaction to be finding [C] in the pursuit of knowledge [D] .

九、不定式的否定形式:否定形式是在不定式的标志to前边加not

39) that new information to anyone else but the sergeant.

[A] They asked him not to give[B] They asked him to don't give

[C] They asked him no give[D] They asked him to no give

40) Please remember lights on in the future.

[A] don't leave [B] not to leave [C] not leaving [D] don't to leave

41) The teacher told [A] the students to don't [B] discuss [C] the takehome exam with each other [D] .

十、介词except和but(作“只有……,只能……”讲时)跟不定式结构(but与不带to的不定式连用)

He seldom goes back home except to ask for money from his parents.

He did nothing there except watch TV for the whole night.(不带to的不定式)

I had no choice but to stay in bed.

Last night I did nothing but prepare my lessons.

42) Lots of empty bottles were found under the old man's bed.He must have done nothing but .

[A] drink[B] to drink[C] drinking[D] drunk

43) When the streets are full of [A] melting [B] snow, you cannot help but getting [C] your shoes wet [D] .

十一、例题解析

1) A错。 改为To derive.

2) A为正确答案。

3) C为正确答案。

4) B错。改为to concentrate.

5) A为正确答案。

6) C为正确答案。“to be known”后通常接不定式,与此类似的尚有“to be said”等。

7) B错。改为to land.因为manage后只能跟带to的不定式作宾语。

8) D为正确答案。

9) C为正确答案。因为know须接带特殊疑问词的动词不定式。

10) C为正确答案。

11) A错。改为to provide,根据平行原则,A处和“to allow…”是并列的表语,故A处也应用不定式。

12) B错。改为to negociate.

13) A对。不定式短语“to bring…characters”充当宾语“the artist”的定语。“allow sb.to do sth.”是固定搭配,还有类似的其他动词。这句话的意思是:在动画片摄制过程中,影片的灵活性能使艺术家充分施展其想象力。

14) D为正确答案。名词“ability”(能力) 后要接不定式,表示哪一方面的能力。

15) B错。改为“controlling”,此处的“to control”与“trouble”并没有这层关系。

16) A为正确答案。17) C为正确答案。18) C为正确答案。19) D错。改为to do.20) D为正确答案。

21) C为正确答案。22) B为正确答案。23) C为正确答案。24) D为正确答案。25) B错。改为“be detected”。

26) A为正确答案。27) A为正确答案。28) C为正确答案。29) B为正确答案。30) A为正确答案。

31) C错。改为pile up.32) C为正确答案。33) A为正确答案。34) B为正确答案。35) B为正确答案。

36) A为正确答案。37) D为正确答案。

38) C错。本句不定式所表示的动作“发现”(find) 逻辑上的主语为“满足”(satisfaction), 而“满足”只能被“发现”,故C应改为ED分词“found”,“to be found”为不定式被动态。

39) A为正确答案。

40) B为正确答案。

41) B错。改为not to.

42) A为正确答案。

43) C错。改为get.如果去掉C前的“but”, 本句应为: When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help getting your shoes wet.

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