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北京哪个成教培训机构

发布时间:2017-01-16来源:中华网发布人:zolo
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北京哪个成教培训机构

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成人高考英语语法归纳及练习(十八)

——ING分词

内 容 提 要

-ING分词也是动词的非限定性形式,由动词原形+-ING构成,在句中可以直接作主语,也可用形式主语it来代替,而把-ING分词放到后边;可以作表语;作宾语时对动词有一定的要求,有的动词只能跟接-ING分词,有的动词则既可以跟不定式也可以跟-ING分词,而且-ING分词还可作介词的宾语;在作宾语补足语时对动词也有一定的要求;作状语时,-ING分词要与其逻辑主语呼应,否则就要用独立结构;-ING分词作定语时相当于一个定语从句。跟动词不定式一样,-ING分词也有它的完成时态、被动语态和否定形式;最后我们还要了解-ING分词的逻辑主语问题。

第一节 -ING分词的形式

-ING分词是指由动词原形+-ING构成的、具有完成时态和被动语态的一种非谓语动词形式,具体形式如下

主动形式 被动形式

一般时 doing being done

完成时 having done having been done

就其语法功能而言,它可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补语、状语和定语。

第二节 -ING分词的用法

一、 作主语

1. 一般形式

1) the matriculation for postgraduate is probably the turning point of my life.

[A] Taking the part of [B] Taking part in [C] To take the part of [D] To take the notice in

2) a teacher is being present at the creation, when the clay begins to breathe.

[A] As[B] To be[C] Is[D] Being

3) by transforming the blame to others is often called scapegoating.

[A]Eliminate problems[B]The eliminated problems[C]Eliminating problems[D]Problems are eliminated

2. 有时可以用it做形式主语

It's waste of time arguing with the gossip about it.

It's interesting having traveled to Beidaihe this year.[说明:从这句中我们可以看出,这种结构通常适用于名词和形容词。但不适用于像possible, important, essential, necessary等表示性质的形容词,这些词后面一般要跟动词不定式。我们不能说 It's quite necessary taking part in the negociation.应改作It's quite necessary to take part in the negociation.]

It's glorious getting involved in working out the plan.

4) It is [A] possible determining that [B] French explorers reached the jucture of [C] the Kansas and Missouri rivers [D] in the seventeenth century.

二、作表语的-ING分词

Seeing is believing.

His aims are learning two foreign languages and applying the theory he has learned to practice.

三、-ING分词作动词宾语

1. 一类是动词或短语后边跟宾语的非限定性动词只能是-ING分词,如:acknowledge, admit(坦白,承认), advise, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, can't help, consider, contemplate(深思), delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape(躲过,避开), excuse, fancy, finish, give up, imagine, include, keep on, justify, mean(意味着,等于), mind(在乎), miss, postpone, practise, prohibit, put off, quit, recall, regret, resist, resume, risk(冒险干…), suggest, threaten.

5) By taking the back way he escaped .

[A] to be seen [B] have been seen [C] seeing [D] being seen

6) I came late and missed Jack winning.

[A] to see[B] seeing[C] see[D] seen

7) “I see our boss coming down the hall.”

“Then we'd better quit and get down to business.”

[A] talking[B] to talk[C] from talking[D] having talk

8) The young doctor first [A] practised to use [B] the needles on [C] his own [D] wrist.

9) Some experts have advocated to bring [A] that country into [B] the talks, to revive the intermittent dialogue [C] that began [D] after the 1967 Middle East War.

2. 另一类动词后边作宾语的非限定性动词可以是-ING分词的动名词,也可以是动词不定式,如:attempt, begin, can't bear, cease, continue, deserve, endure, forget, go on, hate, intend, like, love, need, neglect, omit, plan, prefer, propose, regret, remember, start , stop, try等。(动词后接-ING和不定式时在用法上的区别在下一章讲)

10) “What's wrong with Henry?”He needs .“

[A] cheer up[B] to be cheer up[C] cheering up[D] to cheered up

11) Any such news would start her .

[A] to worry[B] worrying[C] worry[D] worried

3. -ING分词作宾语还有下一结构,即用it代表-ING分词,而把-ING分词短语放到句子的后边去

I consider it worthwhile spending ten thousand yuan on the furniture./Marry fount it marvellous having a journey with him.

四、 -ING结构作介词的宾语

几乎所有介词,不管是单个介词还是介词词组,不管它们是谓语动词的组成部分与否,都能用-ING分词的动名词作其宾语。所以,-ING结构作介词宾语的时候很多。-ING结构一般作介词短语的宾语,主要有以下搭配关系

1. 动词+介词+ -ING

12) Scientists measure the hardness [A] of a material [B] by comparatively [C] with a table of ten well-known [D] metals.

13) Her mother did not [A] approve of her to go [B] to the party without dressing [C] formally [D] .

14) Although many women's colleges [A] have been coeducational [B] , other universities remain committed to keep [C] their facilities separate [D] .

15) We insist on you leave [A] the place before [B] any further [C] disturbances take place [D] .

2. 名词(形容词,不及物动词)+介词to(不要把它视为动词不定式的标志)。下面是大纲中所列短语中的“to”为介词:(be) contrary to (与…相反),object(objection)to (反对), with a view to (为…起见),(be) opposed to (反对), in contrast to (与…成对比),be used to (习惯于), be exposed to, be dedicated to (致力于),resort to (诉诸于), as to (关于), be accustomed to (习惯于), be devoted to (献身于), be committed to (委身于), react to (对…反应), with regard to (关于), look forward to (期待), contribute to (贡献),owe to由于,归功于等

16) I have no objection the evening with them.

[A] to spend [B] to spending [C] to have spent [D] to have to spend

17) Why do you object to the direction?

[A] following [B] follow [C] have follow [D] have been followed

18) Mr. Brown often wore [A] a heavy coat [B] because he was not used to live [C] in such a [D] cold climate.

19) Livy was the [A] only great historian of the time [B] , and he devoted his attention to give [C] the world splendid [D] pictures.

3. 动词+副词+介词+ -ING

I look forward to her coming soon.

4. 形容词(或具有形容词性质的-ED分词)+介词+ -ING

I am proud of having such a son.

He is greatly honored of shaking hands with the President.

It's impossible for him finishing the task in such a short time.

He is interested in playing table tennis.

5. 表示征询意见的 “How about…?”, “What…about?”

How about going there?

What about having a concert?

20) How about to the movies tonight?

[A] going[B] if go[C] to go[D] if we go

6. 前面省略了介词in的-ING惯用法

The two children are busy doing their homework.

Mr. Smith has difficulty fulfilling the task.

There is no use going over the lessons before the night of exam.

He has spent a lot of time preparing the exam for the postgraduate.

Xiao Li lost no time catching up with his classmates.

There is no point arguing with him.

五、 -ING结构作宾语补足语

1. 表示感觉和心理状态的动词,如 hear, feel, find, give, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, smell, watch等词的宾语可以用-ING作宾语补语

21) “Where are the children?” “I saw in the yard.”

[A] them to play [B] them played [C] them playing [D] to them playing

22) I must say I don't like to hear you like that.

[A] talking[B] to talk[C] have to talk[D] talked

2. 表示“致使”等意义的动词,如 catch, have, get, keep, leave, set

I am sorry to have kept you waiting for me so long.

What you have told left me thinking that you experienced much when you were young.

3. 其他动词宾语的补语

23) The average age [A] of the Mediterranean [B] olive trees grow [C] today is two hundred years [D] .

六、 -ING结构作状语

-ING结构作状语表示主语在进行一动作的同时所进行的另一动作,它对谓语动词起修饰或陪衬的作用。这时要注意-ING与其逻辑主语在时态、意义上的统一

1. 表示时间和伴随 一般放在句首,有时可放在句中

Coming into the room, I found him sobbing. (=When I came into the room, I found him sobbing.) 在这里coming这一-ING分词动作发生时,紧接着(几乎是同时)发生了谓语动作,有“一……就”的意思。

Pulling his body in the car, he drove away.(=After he pulled his body in the car, he drove away.)

24) Those naughty boys were caught flowers in the garden again.

[A]to steal[B]stealing[C] having stolen[D]stolen

25) Daniel walked up and down [A] as he listened, hands behind [B] his back, now and then [C] asked [D] a question.

2. 表示方式

Being a clever girl, she was sent to college by her father.(此例不可改成:Being a clever girl, her father sent her to college.因为分词短语的逻辑主语不是“her father ”, 而只能是“she ”。)

如果-ING分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,-ING分词前可以加when,while等连词,可放在句首或句末:When arriving home, he found the door opened. / He listened to the music radio while reading.

26) ,Tony jumped into the river and saved the drowning man.

[A] Good swimer as he is [B] He can swim very well

[C] Being that he was a good swimmer [D] Being a good swimmer

27) the kind of man he was, he did not pay much attention to it at first.

[A] To be[B] Being[C] Having been[D] Though to be

28) Was a dancer [A] and blues singer before [B] the age of eight [C] ,Florence Mills made her [D] vaudeville debut(轻歌舞首演) in 1910.

3. 表示原因

Not having had any letter from Tom, Marry was worried.(=Marry was worried because she did not have any letter from Tom.)

Having got a headache, I didn't come to the concert. (=Because I got a headache, I didn't come to the concert.)

29) Most of the people, , could not go to sleep that night after the party.

being so excited

[A] being so excited [B] be so excited [C] being so exciting [D] be so exciting

30) Having the highest marks in his class, .

[A] the college offered him a scholarship [B] he was offered a scholarship by the college

[C] a scholarship was offered him by the college [D] a college scholarship was offered to him

4. 表示条件:一般放在句首

Knowing anything about it, I will tell you all. (=If I know anything about it, I will tell you all.)

Working diligently, you will pass the entrance exam. (=If you work diligently, you will pass the entrance exam.)

5. 表示让步:表示让步的-ING分词常常由although/though, even if/though, unless等连词引入,一般放在句首

Having great diffculties in the course of working, they finished the task ahead of time.

Buying a lot of reference books for the exam, he failed in it because of the learning method.

Although repeating his words many times, the teacher could not make his students understand the concret concept of philosophy.

Even if coming by taxi, I will arrive in at least 45 minutes.

6. 表示结果:置于句末,前面要加so, thereby, thus, hence等表示结果的副词

He worked day and night, making himself near sighted.

Not making what he meant misunderstood, he adjusted his tones to underline his meaning.

The workers worked 14 hours a day, thus producing products three times as they did last month.

He wished to travel all over the world, thereby studying customs of other countries.

31) The bus was held up by the traffic jam, .

[A] thus causing the delay[B] so that caused the delay

[C] to cause the delay[D] caused the delay

七、-ING分词作定语

-ING分词可以单独作定语,也可以构成合成词作定语,但在更多情况下是分词短语作定语,包括限定性和非限定性(用逗号与其他部分分开),在意义上相当于一个定语从句(包括限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句)

32) Jacob Lawrence executed many cycles of paintings significant social themes.

[A] expressed [B] expressing [C] express [D] expression of

33) The name Nebraska comes from the Oto Indian word “nebrathka”, flat water.

[A] to mean [B] meaning [C] it means [D] by meanig

34) The production of tin ore in the United States is relatively insignificant, less than one hundred tons annually.

[A] amounting to [B] in the amount [C] amounts to it [D] to the amount of

八、-ING的完成时、被动语态与否定形式

1. 如果-ING分词表示的是一般性动作,(即不指明是现在、过去或将来)不表示动作的先后或与谓语所表示的动作同时或几乎同时发生,这时要用-ING的一般形式

35) Revolution means the productive forces.

[A] to liberate [B] to have liberated [C] liberating [D] having been liberated

36) It is a simple matter [A] to have found [B] the density of a gas [C] from its formula [D] .

2. 但如果-ING分词所表示的动作先于句子谓语发生,就要用“(not)having+-ED分词”表示完成时

37) by the journey, he went to bed immediately after he came back home.

[A] Being exhausted [B] To have exhausted [C] Having exhausted [D] Having been exhausted

38) with an accedent, he arrived at the station ten minutes late.

[A] Having met [B] To have met [C] Meeting [D] Having been met

3. 当非限定性动词-ING的逻辑主语是-ING所表示的动作对象时要用-ING的被动形式,包括其一般形式“(not)being + -ED分词和完成形式”(not)having been +-ED分词“

39) Solids, liquids, and gases at rest all have a tendency to resist in motion.

[A] setting[B] to set[C] being set[D] to be set

40) Upon questioning [A] he denied having killed [B] the old woman with [C] the home-made [D] gun.

4. -ING的否定形式是把not加在-ING的前边

41) of the change in the meeting time, Mike arrived late.

[A] Not having notified[B] Not notifying[C] Not to notify[D] Not having been notified

42) I regret hard at school.

[A] not to have worked[B] not having worked[C] not have worked[D] having not worked

九、-ING分词的逻辑主语

1. -ING分词除了具有动词的特点以外,它还有名词的特点,即可以加物主代词(如my,your,his等)和名词的属格(如Wang Qing's等)来表示其逻辑主语(这时-ING的逻辑主语和句子主语不一致)

43) I suggest on an excursion this Sunday.

[A] we are going [B] to go [C] us going [D] our going

44) on a clear day, far from the city crowds, the mountains give him a sense of infinite peace.

[A] If walking [B] While walking [C] Walking [D] When one is walking

45) Marta [A] being chosen [B] as the most outstanding [C] student on her campus made her parents [D] very happy.

2. 还有一种-ING分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的情况,这时直接可用“-ING分词的主语+-ING”来表示,这样的-ING分词短语可由介词引导。这种结构叫独立结构

46) A new technique , the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.

[A] to have been worked out [B] having worked out

[C] working out [D] having been worked out

47) Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work , we declined the offer.

[A] not being finished[B] not having finished[C] had not been finished[D] was not finished

3. 如果逻辑主语已和句子主语一致,那么其逻辑主语就可省略(在使用这种用法时要注意:-ING分词所表示的动作[ZZ(]一定[ZZ)]是主语所发出的,也就是说-ING分词的逻辑主语[ZZ(]一定[ZZ)]是主句的主语。试比较下列句子)

Getting into the room, I smelled a terrible smell.(getting 是 I 的动作)

Getting into the room, it give a terrible smell. (错误)

Walking through the forest, we found many strange animals. (walking 是 we 发出的)

Walking through the forest, a lot of animals are there. (错误)

Looking out of the window of our hotel room, we saw zigzag mountains. (Looking的使动者是we)

Looking out of the window of our hotel room, there were zigzag mountians.(错误)

48) Never attempting to be a literary stylist, in her novels.

[A] she considered the plot the most important element

[B] the most important element considered to be the plot

[C] considering the plot the most important element

[D] the plot was considered to be the most important element

49) with the new method, the material does not break up easily.

[A] To have treated [B] Having treated [C] Being treated [D] Having been treated

50) Attempting to reach his home before the storm, .

[A] the bicycle of John broke down[B] it happened that John's bike broke down

[C] the storm caught John[D] John had an accident on his bicycle

4. -ING分词的主语可以与做主语的名词或代词(即代词的主格)一致,放在-ING前边,与

-ING分词构成逻辑上的“主谓”关系。但是,-ING分词(还有-ED分词)短语作状语时,也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的“主语”。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,叫做独立结构。在很多情况下它都相当于各种形式的状语,表示一种伴随的动作或情况

51) Weather , we'll go sightseeing.

[A] permitted[B] is permitted[C] permitting[D] is permitting

52) There are four factories in our institute, .

[A] each to have over 100 workers[B] each having over 100 worders

[C] which there are over 100 workers[D] with each that has over 100 workers

53) We went to [A] the World Park, Xiao Wang act [B] as guide for [C] he had been there several times [D]。

十、习惯用法

1. There is no +-ING分词,表示“不可能”

There is no getting along with him.(无法和他相处。)

2. It(There) is no use (good) +-ING分词,表示“无用”= It is of no use (good) to +V:

There(It) is no use advising him to give up smoking.(劝他戒烟是徒劳的。)

3. be busy(worth)+-ING分词 (忙于)

He is busy mapping out his plans for the next semester.

4. feel like+-ING分词 (想)

I don't feel like eating just now.(我现在不想吃。)

5. What do you say to+-ING分词?(…怎么样?)

What do you say to joining us for dinner?(和我们一起进餐,你看怎么样?)

6. spend+时间+(in)+-ING分词

Jane spent several days (in) preparing for the final exams.(简花了好几天时间准备期末考试。)7.

difficulty

trouble

have + a problem +(in)+ -ING分词

a good(hard) time

fun (快乐)

54) The student had [A] difficulty to write [B] a short paragraph [C] correctly [D] .

55) I imagine that [A] I could go to the theater again and have just as good a time [B] not try to [C] think of an opening sentence [D] .

十一、例题解析

1) B为正确答案。2) D为正确答案。3) C为正确答案。

4) B错。 改为to determine,关于动词不定式与-ING分词的区别请参见第七章“小结”。

5) D为正确答案。6) B为正确答案。7) A为正确答案。8) B错。改为using.9) A错。改为bringing.

10) C为正确答案。

11) B为正确答案。“start+不定式”与“start+-ING”有所不同,前者表示具体动作,后者表示一般性动作或状态。

12) C错。改为comparing.13) B错。改为her going.

14) C错。改为to keeping.be committed to+名词或-ING分词,意为“同意承担,答应(干某事或支持某事)。”

15) A错。 改为your leaving.16) B为正确答案。17) A为正确答案。18) C错。改为to living.

19) C错。 改为giving.20) A为正确答案。21) C为正确答案。22) A为正确答案。

23) C错。改成“growing”。本句中先后出现了两个动词,“grow”和“is”,这显然不合语法。将“grow”变为“growing”后便构成了-ING短语,修饰“trees”。[参见第六章]

24) B为正确答案。stealing表示正在进行。25) D错。改为asking.26) D为正确答案。27) B为正确答案。

28) A错。改成“Being a dancer”。29) A为正确答案。30) B为正确答案。31) A为正确答案。

32) B为正确答案。本句空白处缺能起定语作用的词,用来修饰前面的名词paintings.

33) B为正确答案。本句空白后面的成分为-ING短语,相当于“which means…”。C 表面上正确,但英语中没有连接词连接的两个分句是不能成立的,但我们可以说“which means”,用“which”指代“Nebrathka”。但这样就变成非限定性定语从句了。

34) A为正确答案。本句相当于一个非限定性定语从句(which amounts to…),amount(总计) -不及物动词,故没有-ED分词。 35) C为正确答案。36) B错。 改为to find.37) D为正确答案。38) A为正确答案。39) C为正确答案。

40) A错。Upon being questioned.41) D为正确答案。42) B为正确答案。43) D为正确答案。44) D为正确答案。

45) A错。改为Marta's.46) D为正确答案。47) A为正确答案。48) A为正确答案。49) D为正确答案。

50) D为正确答案。51) C为正确答案。52) B为正确答案。53) B错。改为acting.54) B错。改为writing.

55) C错。改为trying to.

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