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在线学口语远程培训哪个好

发布时间:2016-10-01来源:中华网发布人:wyznl
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一、概说

英语分词分现在分词和过去分词。现在分词与动名词相同,规则动词的过去分词与过去式相同,不规则动词的过去分词没有特别规则,需特别记忆。分词是非谓语动词的一种,它一方面具有动词性质,可以有自己的状语,另一方面又具有形容词和副词功能,可用作定语和状语等。

二、现在分词的句法功能

1. 作表语

The news is encouraging. 这消息令人鼓舞。

The present situation is terrifying. 目前形势令人惊恐。

Please be seated. 请坐好。

The window was broken. 窗户破了。

注:(1) 有的用作表语的分词具有形容词性质,有的甚至已转化为形容词。

(2) 现在分词和动名词作表语的区别:现在分词作表语主要表示主语的性质和特征,而动名词作表语则主要是对主语内容的进一步说明和解释。另外,动名词作表语时它可与主语交换位置,而现在分词作表语则不可与主语交换位置:

误:Very interesting is my job.

正:Looking after the children is my job.

还有,作表语的现在分词不能带宾语,而作表语用的动名词可以带宾语(如上例)。

2. 作定语

What disappointing news! 多么令人失望的消息!

The story had a satisfying ending. 这故事有一个令人满意的结局。

She is a trained nurse. 她是一个受过训练的护士。

All these are required subjects. 所有这些都是必修课。

注:(1) 单个的分词作定语可以置于被修饰词语之前,但若是分词短语作定语则应置于被修饰名词之后:

There is a gentleman asking to see you. 有一位先生要求见你。

She bought a computer produced in China. 她买了一台中国生产的电脑。

(2) 由现在分词being构成的短语通常不能用作后置定语,除非这个being是构成被动结构的助动词:

误:Anyone being ill can take the medicine.

正:Anyone who is ill can take the medicine. 任何人病了都可服这药。

正:He isn’t interested in the question being discussed. 他对讨论的问题不感兴趣。

(3) 现在分词作后置定语时,它所表示的动作通常不能发生在谓语动作之前(这也就是为什么现在分词的完成式不能用作后置定语的原因):

误:The man stealing [having stolen] the car was caught.

正:The man who stole the car was caught. 偷汽车的那个人被抓了。

(4) 现在分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:现在分词作定语时,它所修饰的名词通常就是现在分词的逻辑主语,并且通常可转换成一个定语从句;而动名词作定语表示的是被修饰名词的作用、作途等。比较:

a moving truck 正在移动的汽车(moving为现在分词,与truck有主谓关系)

a moving truck 搬家汽车(moving为动名词,说明truck的用途)

a hunting dog 正在猎物的狗(hunting为现在分词,与dog有主谓关系)

a hunting dog 猎狗(hunting为动名词,说明dog的用途)

3. 作状语

分词作状语可以表示多种关系:

(1) 表时间:

Seeing the cat, the mouse ran off. 见到猫,老鼠就跑了。

The work finished, he went home. 工作做完后,他就回家了。

(2) 表原因:

Being very weak, she couldn’t move. 她由于身体虚弱而不能行动。

His car broken down, he had to walk. 他的车坏了,所以只好走路。

Much discouraged,she moved on to London. 她很沮丧,搬到了伦敦。

(3) 表条件:

United, we stand; divided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。

Given more time, we could have done it better. 如果多给点时间,我们可以做得更好。

Working hard, you will succeed. 如果努力工作,你就可以成功。

Adding them all up, we can find the answer. 如果把它们加起来,我们就可以得到答案。

(4) 表让步:

Although living miles away, he attended the course. 虽然住在几英里以外,他仍去上课。

Defeated, he remained a popular boxer. 虽然被击败了,他仍是一个受欢迎的拳击手。

(5) 表方式:

He earns a living driving a truck. 他靠开卡车谋取生。

I’m returning you letter as requested. 我按要求给你退信。

(6) 表伴随:

He sat in the chair reading newspapers. 他坐在椅子上看报。

Don’t you sit there doing nothing. 别什么也不干坐在那里。

He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。

(7) 表结果:

He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。

He died, leaving his wife with five children. 他死了,留下他妻子和五个儿子。

It rained and rained, vehicles bogged and bridges washed out. 雨不停地下,车辆陷入泥沼,桥梁被水冲去。

4. 作宾语补足语

He soon had them all laughing. 他很快逗得大家都笑了。

I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。

We found him greatly changed. 我们发现他变化很大。

I heard my name called. 我听到有人叫我的名字。

All these are required subjects. 所有这些都是必修课。

三、分词的时态和语态

现在分词和过去分词的时态和语态如下表(如动词do为例):

1. 现在分词一般式的用法

现在分词的一般式所表示的动作与主语动作同时发生:

When we arrived, we found him sleeping. 我们到达时发现他在睡觉。

Living in the suburbs, we have few visitors. 因为住在郊外,我们没什么访客。

注:有时现在分词所表示的动作也可略早于或迟于谓语动作,但两者之间没有时间间隔:

Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave a note. 发现没有在家,他决定留个字条。

He went home, finding the door locked. 他回到家,发现门是锁着的。

当现在分词所表示的动作略迟于谓语动作时,现在分词通常位于句末。

2. 现在分词完成式的用法

现在分词的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动作:

Having been there once,she knew the place quite well. 由于去过那儿一次,她对那地方很熟悉。

Having failed twice, he didn’t want to try again. 他已经失败了两次,不想再试了。

注:(1) 现在分词的一般式和完成式均可表示已完成或先于谓语的动作,但有区别:现在分词所表示的动作虽然可以先于谓语动作,但两者之间没有时间间隔,而现在分词的完成式所表示先于谓语的动作则与谓语动作有一定的时间间隔:

Locking the door, he went out. 锁好门之后,他就出去了。

Having invited him here to speak,we’d better go to his lecture. 既然我们请了他来作报告,我们最好去听一下。

有时即使是分词动作与谓语动作几乎同时发生,但如果要强调分词动作的完成性,也应用现在分词的完成式:

Having bought our tickets,we went into the theatre. 我们买好票后就走进剧场。

(2) 现在分词的完成式一般不用作定语:

误:Do you know anyone having lost a cat? 你知道有谁丢了一只猫吗?

误:I want to talk to the person having broken the window. 我想同打破窗户的人谈谈。

若将以上现分词的完成式改为一般式也不可以(因为现在分词作后置定语时通常只表示与谓语动作同时或几乎同时发生的动作,而不能先于谓语动作而发生):

误:I want to talk to the person breaking the window.

3. 现在分词被动式的用法

当要表示一个被动动作时,现在分词就用被动形式。现在分词的一般式和完成式均有被动式形式:

(1) 现在分词一般式的被动式:主要表示现在正在进行的动作,也可表示与谓语动作同时发生的动作:

Who is the woman being operated on? 正在动手术的女人是谁?

I saw him being taken away by the police. 我看见他被警察带走。

注:有时现在分词一般式的被动式所表示的动作也可发生在谓语动作之前(此时的现在分词通常用于表示原因,且多为状态动词):

Not having a car, he finds it difficult to get around. 由于没车,她感到行动很困难。

(2) 现在分词完成式的被动式:主要表示发生在谓语动词之前且已经完成的动作。如:

The subject having been opened,he had to go on with it. 话题已经开始了,他不得不谈下去。

Having been written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。

比较:Being so ill, she can’t go to school. 由于病得那么严重,她不能去上学。

Having been ill for a long time, he needed time to recover. 由于病了很长时间,他需要一段恢复的时间。

3. 过去分词一般式的用法

过去分词只有一般式,没有完成式。过去分词在意义上最主要特点是表被动,在时间上它可以表示多种关系:

(1) 表示已经发生的动作:

Born in a poor family, he could not go to school. 因生于贫穷家庭,他上不起学。

Built in 1501,the bridge is over 500 years old. 这座桥建于1501年,已有五百多年的历史。

(2) 表示经常性动作或泛指概论:

He is a man loved by all. 他是一个受大家爱戴的人。

The woman talked about is very rich. 人们经常谈论的那个女人很有钱。

注:the woman talked about也可表示“已被人们谈论过的那个女人”。

(3) 表示与谓动词动词同时(几乎同时)发生的动作:

Asked why he came, he kept silent. 问他为什么要来,他一言不发。

He came in, followed by his secretary. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的秘书。

(4) 表示现在或过去(当时)的状态:

The murderer was brought in, his hands tied behind. 凶手被带了进来,双手被绑在后面。

4. 过去分词与现在分词被动式的区别

两者均可表示被动,其区别主要在于它们所表示的时间概念不同(参见以上有关用法),但有时它们也可表示相同的意思(www.yygrammar.com):

Written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。

Being written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。

Having been written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。

有时虽然所表示的时间概念相同,但有细微区别:

Having been show the lab, we left. 被领着看了实验室后,我们就离开了。

Shown the lab, we left. 被领着一看完实验室,我们就离开了。(有一种急促感)

四、分词的否定式

分词的否定式总是将否定词not置于分词之前,遇上现在分词的完成式、被动式以及完成被动式,否定词应置于整个结构之前:

Not being able to understand English, he didn’t know what they wanted. 由于他不懂英语,他不知道他们要什么。

Not having finished his work,he could not leave the office. 由于工作没干完他不能离开办公室。

Everyone helped,John not excepted. 大家都来帮忙,约翰也不例外。

五、分词的逻辑主语

1. 何谓分词的逻辑主语

分词属非谓语动词,即不用作谓语的动词,所以它没有真正的主语。但是,分词作为动词的一种形式,它应有自己理论上或逻辑上的主语:

I often hear him singing this song. 我经常听他唱这首歌。(him 是singing的逻辑主语)

Hearing the news, he couldn’t help crying. 听到这消息,他禁不住哭了。(he是hearing的逻辑主语)

若用的是过去分词或现在分词的被动式,则上面提到的逻辑主语实为“逻辑宾语”:

I often hear this song sung. 我经常听到有人唱这首歌。(this song是sung的逻辑主语,但是sing 的逻辑宾语)

I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。(her是being taken 的逻辑主语,但是take 的逻辑宾语)

2. 使用分词逻辑主语的易错点

分词作状语,它的逻辑主语通常应是句子主语,否则会出错。请看下例:

(1) Finding her car stolen, ______.

A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searched thoroughly

C. it was looked for everywhere D. she hurried to a policeman for help

此题答案应选D,因为句首用作状语的现在分词短语finding her car stolen 的逻辑主语应是“她”,而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等。

在使用分词的逻辑主语时还要注意根据句意判断是主动还是被动,如:

(2) _____ many times, he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Though to be told

C. Having told D. He was told

根据句意,he 与 tell 应是被动关系。从时间上看,应该是“被告诉”在先,“没有理解”在后,故选A。比较下题由于句中用了并列连词but,情况有所不同:

(3) _____ many times, but he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Though he was told

C. To have been told D. He was told

此题答案选D,句中的并列连词 but 表明整个句子为并列句,同时表明 but 前应是一个独立的句子,而不能是一个非谓语动词短语(所以不能选A或C)。

3. 分词逻辑主语的特例

一般说来,分词作状语,它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,但事实上有少数例外的特殊情况:

(1) 某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达,它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致:

Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来女人比男人活得长。

Judging from what you say,he ought to succeed. 从你的话看他应当能成功。

Considering the distance,he arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达是很快的。

Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。

(2) 当句子含有先行主语it或there时,有时有作状语的分词短语可以与先行主语不一致:

Having so little time, there was not much that I could do. 由于时间很少,我能做的事很有限。

Being French, it’s surprising that she’s such a terrible cook. 她是法国人,但她做饭做得那么糟真是令人感到惊奇。

(3) 当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题:

Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? 要是她不来我们怎么办?(supposing为连词,意为“假若”)

Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们没有经验,这工作已做得很不错了。(given为介词,意为“考虑到”)

(4) 当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的one或you时,也无需考虑主语的一致性问题:

In doing such work, patience is needed. 做这种工作需要耐心。(=When one does such work, patience is needed.)

4. 分词的独立主格结构

在通常情况下,分词作状语时它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,若不一致,则应改用其他句型,如:

误:Crossing the road, a car knocked him down.

正:Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a car. 过马路时他被车撞倒了。

正:When he was crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 他过马路时车子把他撞倒了。

解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题,也可在分词前加一个名词或代词,使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,故称分词的独立主格结构:

The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。

The weather being fine, we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。

He being absent, nothing couldn’t be done. 由于他缺席,什么事也干不成。

以上各句的the job, the weather, he 等不能省略。

六、重点考点精练

1. Anyone ______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by the police.

A. seen carry B. seen carrying C. saw to carry D. saw carrying

2. The plane crashed, _____ all 200 people aboard.

A. killed B. having killed C. killing D. had killed

3. We solved the problem by reducing our costs and ______ more money.

A. borrowed B. borrowing C. would borrow D. had borrowed

4. I asked the boss for a month’s holiday and, _____ it or not, he agreed.

A. believe B. to believe C. believing D. believed

5. The new manager started last week, ______ with him plenty of new ideas.

A. bringing B. brought C. to bring D. to have brought

6. Any student ______ will be disqualified from the exam.(www.yygrammar.com)

A. catching cheating B. catching to cheat C. caught cheating D. caught to cheat

7. She read the letter through before sending it, ______ for spelling mistakes.

A. checked B. to be checking C. checking D. having checked

8. Before you decide to leave your job, ______ consider the effect it will have on your family.

A. consider B. considering C. to consider D. considered

9. If you’re going on a long car journey, ______ sure the vehicle’s in good condition.

A. making B. to make C. make D. having made

10. _______ the road round to the right and you’ll find his house.

A. Follow B. Following C. To be following D. Having followed

11. He arrived at the office early, ______ a good example to the others.

A. set B. to set C. to be set D. having set

12. He pushed his way through the crowd, ______ “Excuse me.”

A. to say B. said C. saying D. having saying

13. The film star walked to his car, ______ a crowd of journalists.

A. followed by B. following by C. to follow D. to be followed by

14. — Where is David?

—He is upstairs ______ ready to go out.

A. to get B. getting C. to be getting D. having got

15. If you go there alone after dark you might be get ______.

A. attacked and robbed B. attacking and robbing

B. to attack and rob D. to be attacked and robbed

16. She gets about quite a lot, ______ for an international company.

A. working B. works C. having worked D. to be working

17. _____ him enough time to get home before you telephone.

A. Give B. To give C. Giving D. Given

18. She didn’t want to _____ a secretary all her life, so she went back to college.

A. go on being B. go on to be C. go to be D. go being

19. He was reading his book, completely ______ to the world.

A. lost B. losing C. to lose D. to having lost

20. Don’t sit there ______ — come and help me!

A. watch B. watching C. to watch D. to be watching

21. I found I could easily make myself _______ by using sign language.

A. understood B. understand C. to understand D. being understood

22. Do not leave the building unless _______ to do so.

A. to instruct B. instructed C. being instructed D. instructing

23. If you don’t succeed the first time, ______ again.(www.yygrammar.com)

A. try B. to try C. trying D. to be trying

24. He’d walked the streets all night ______ somewhere to stay.

A. looked B. looked for C. looking D. looked for

25. Look at that little boy ______ about — perhaps he’s lost his mother.

A. wander B. wandering C. to be wandering D. being wandering

参考答案:

01—05 BCBAA 06—10 CCACA 11—15 BCABA 16—20 AAAAB 21—25 ABADB

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