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发布时间:2016-07-15 来源:新东方在线 发布人:young


哪个托福班好 ?报了低起点的VIP班,由于基础较差,因此很怕跟不上老师的节奏,结果老师的进程比较慢,很适合我们这种底子差的。





Some people believe that one’s personality changes as they grow older while others believe that one’s personality remains the same over the time. What is your opinion and why?

今天跟大家分享英国哲学家,数学家罗素的这篇On Education of Character,供大家思考和积累话题素材:

On education of Character


When it is sought to produce a certain kind of behavior in a child or animal, there are two different techniques which may be followed. We may, on the one hand, by means of rewards and punishmentscause the child or animal to perform or abstain from certain precise acts; or we may, on the other hand,seek to produce in the child or animal such emotions as will lead, on the whole, to acts of the kind desired.


By a suitable distribution of rewards and punishments, it is possible to control a very large part of overt behavior. By this method boys who are naturally timid can acquire physical courage, and children who are sensitive to pain can be taught a stoical endurance. Good manners, if not imposed earlier, can be learnt in adolescence by means of no worse punishment than the contemptuous lifting of an eyebrow. What is called ‘good form’ is acquired by almost all who are exposed to it, merely from fear of the bad opinion incurred by infringing it. Those who have been taught from an early age to fear the displeasure of their group as the worst of misfortunes will die on the battlefield, in a war of which they understand nothing, rather than suffer the contempt of fools.

通过对奖励和惩罚的适当分配,大量外在的行为是可以被控制的。通过这种方法,生来胆小的男孩能够养成生理上的勇气,对疼痛敏感的孩子可以变得能仍受疼痛。好的举止如果在孩童时期没有灌输进去,青春期仍可以学到,而且只需轻蔑的一抬眉毛这样并不严重的惩罚手段。所谓‘好样的’行为,几乎每个耳濡目染的人都可以养成,因为他害怕违反它招来非议。 那些从小就被教导要把圈内的不悦视为最大不幸的人们,即使面对的是他们一点都不理解的战争,也宁愿战死沙场,而不愿受愚人的白眼。

As a social force, the behaviorist method of ‘conditioning’ is therefore very powerful and very successful. It can and does cause men to act in ways quite different from those in which they would otherwise have acted, and it is capable of producing an impressive uniformity of overt behavior. Nevertheless, it has its limitations. (之前全部是让步,这里Nevertheless 后面才开始进入文章要探讨的核心)


It was through Freud that these limitations first became known in a scientific manner, though men of psychological insight had long ago perceived them in an intuitive way. For our purposes, the essential discovery of psycho-analysis is this: that an impulse which is prevented, by behaviorist methods, form finding overt expression in action, does not necessarily die, but is driven underground, and finds some new outlet which has not been inhibited by training. Often the new outlet will be more harmful than the one that has been prevented, and in any case the deflection involves emotional disturbance and unprofitable expenditure of energy. It is therefore necessary to pay more attention to emotion, as opposed to overt behavior, than is done by those who advocate conditioning as alone sufficient in the training of character. (文章主旨在这里:需要对情感给予更多的关注)


There are, moreover, some undesirable habits in regard to which the method of rewards and punishments fails completely, even form its own point of view. (进一步论述,仅仅使用赏罚的手段去培养习惯是失败的)One of these is bed-wetting. When this persists beyond the age at which it usually stops, punishment only makes it more obstinate. Although this fact has long been known to psychologists, it is still unknown to most schoolmasters, who for years on end punish boys having this habit, without ever noticing that the punishment does not produce reform. The cause of the habit, in older boys, is usually some deep-seated unconscious psychological disturbance, which must be brought to the surface before a cure can be effected.


The same kind of psychological mechanism applies in many less obvious instance. In the case of definite nervous disorders this is now widely recognized. (进一步举证无法通过奖赏和惩罚的手段来处理的,由心理机制引发的问题)Kleptomania, for example, is not uncommon in children, and, unlike ordinary thieving, it cannot be cured by punishment, but only by ascertaining and removing its psychological cause. What is less recognized is that we all suffer, to a greater or less degree, from nervous disorders having an emotional origin. A man is called sane when he is as sane as the average of his contemporaries; but in the average man many of the mechanisms which determine his opinions and actions are quite fantastic, so much so that in a world of real sanity they would be called insane. It is dangerous to produce good social behavior by means which leave the anti-social emotions untouched. So long as these emotions, while persisting, are denied all outlet, they will grow stronger and stronger, leading to impulses of cruelty which will at last become irresistible. In the man of weak will, these impulses may break out in crime, or insome form of behavior to which social penalties are attached. In the man of strong will, they take even more undesirable forms. He may be a tyrant in the home, ruthless in business, bellicose in politics, persecuting in his social morality; for all these qualities other men with similar defects of character will admire him; he will die universally respected, after having spread hatred and misery over a city, a nation, or an epoch according to his ability and his opportunities. Correct behavior combined with bad emotions is not enough, therefore, to make a man a contributor to the happiness of mankind. If this is our criterion of desirable conduct, something more must be sought in the education of character.

同样的心理机制也适用于许多不那么显著的例子。在明确的神经失常的情形中,这一点已得到广泛的认同。 例如,盗窃癖在孩子中并不少见;它与通常意义上的盗窃的不同之处在于,治愈它不能通过惩罚,而只能通过查明和消除它的心理诱因。人们认识不足的是,我们都或多或少地有点神经失调,这种失调有着情感上的根源。如果一个人与他同时代的普通人一样甚至健全,他就会被认为是神智健全的人;但在一个普通人那里,决定他言行的许多机制也是非常莫名其妙的,所以这样的人在一个真正神智健全的世界里仍要被认作是神智不健全的人。想不触动反社会的情感而产生良好的社会行为,是很危险的。 只要这些情感还存在,就不能堵死他们的所有出口,否则他们将会越来越强烈,最终导致无法抗拒的残酷冲动。在意志坚强的人那里,这些冲动可能爆发为犯罪,或其他社会必须予以处罚的行为。在意志坚强的人那里,则可能表现为更坏的形式。他可能在家中是个暴君,在商业中是个无情者,在政治上是个好斗者,在社会道德的意义上是个迫害狂;所有这些品格都会使他受到与他具有相似性格缺陷的人们的羡慕;他播下的仇恨和不幸遍及一座城市,一个国家,甚至一个时代---这取决于他的能力和机遇;他在死亡时会受到普遍的尊重。因此,一个人光有适当的行为,如果他有一颗坏心,是不足以对人类的幸福有所贡献的。如果衡量好的行为的标准是人类的幸福,就需要在性格教育中作出更多的努力。