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邪说考研英语连载八:状语从句(上)

发布时间:2017-05-08 来源:新东方在线 发布人:

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诸君,上回说到了从句,其特点即其名字“从”与“句”两个字。吃柿子拣软的,先拿最简单的“状语从句”开刀。

从句的从属地位,表现为结构完整的句子只相当于一个词的地位,根据其所相当的词性,分别为形容词从句,副词从句和名词从句。

形容词从句可作也只作定语,故等于定语从句;副词从句可作也只作状语,故为状语从句,而名词从句可作不同的成分,因而还只能叫名词从句,依其所作成分不同分别为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

副词从句作状语,往往修饰的是谓语动词或者整个句子,因此不像定语从句或名词从句一样与某一个部分纠结在一起。它往往与主句相对,与主句界限分明。位于句首时,状语从句还常以逗号与主句分开。

I’ve brought my umbrella in case it rains.

I’ve brought my umbrella because it is raining.

I’ve brought my umbrella so that I don’t get wet.

I’ve brought my umbrella even though it’s not raining.

You don’t need an umbrella unless it is raining.

副词从句的从属连词标志从句的存在;表示从句与主句之间的逻辑关系;从属连词不是从句的组成成分,后跟一个结构完整的句子。所以对于副词从句,关键是要找到从属连词,判断其表示与主句属于何种关系。

从属连词归纳

副词从句与从句的关系多种多样,表示这种关系的从属连词也随之多种多样。归纳如下:

副词从句种类 常用连接词 特殊连接词

时间状语从句

when, while, as, before,

After, since, till, until, as soon as 一些时间名词:the moment, the instant, the day, the minute, next time, every time;

一些副词:instantly, immediately, directly;

固定搭配的连词:no sooner…than, hardly…when, scarcely…when.

地点状语从句 Where wherever, anywhere, everywhere

原因状语从句 because, as, for, since seeing that, considering that, now that, given that, in that, inasmuch as, insomuch as

目的状语从句 so that, on order that, that lest, for fear that, in case;

In the hope that, on purpose that, for the purpose that, to the end that

结果状语从句 so…that, so that, such…that such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that, to such an extent that

条件状语从句 if, unless suppose, supposing, providing, provided(supposed, provide非从句连词)

sn condition that, so long as, as long as

让步状语从句 although, though, even though, even if while(一般用于句首),as(用于倒装结构)

Wh-ever: whatever, whoever, whichever, however, whenever, wherever, whether…or…

as   adj.  主谓结构用于句首

比较状语从句 as, than 其他比较句型:the more…the more; just as…, so…; A is to B what/as C is to D; no more… than; not A so much as B/not so much A as B

方式状语从句 as, the way

时间状语从句

表示将来时间时,从句用一般现在时

I’ll speak to him when he arrives. (when he will arrive*)

When I fall in love, it’ll be forever, or I’ll never fall in love. When I give my heart, it’ll be complete, or I’ll never give my heart.

*表“将来”的情态动词往往是用于基于一定条件的推测,而不用于表示作为前提的时间或条件等。

When: 某一时刻

I’ll speak to him when he arrives.

I’ll tell him about it when he comes back.

When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.

When I got there, he had already left.

有时也可接延续动词,如:

The doorbell rang when I was telephoning.

*When有时不作“当……时候”讲,而是相当于“……,这时”,这是需要特别注意的用法。

A detective arrested a criminal and was about to handcuff him when a huge gust of wind blew the detective’s hat off.

考题

I was walking along the road ____ suddenly someone patted me on the shoulder from behind. (CET-4)

a. immediately

b. when*

c. the moment

d. while

Whenever: 无论何时

Whenever you say “I love you”, mean it. Whenever you say “I’m sorry”, look the person right in the eyes.

Smile whenever you pick up the phone, for the caller will be able to notice it.

While: 相当于during that time, 表示一个时间段,故一般只接延续动词。

The phone rang while I was taking my bath.

The doorbell rang while we were watching TV.

A detective arrested a criminal and was about to handcuff him when a huge gust of wind blew the detective’s hat off.

“Shall I go and fetch it?” the criminal asked. “Do you take me for a fool?” asked the detective. “You wait here while I go and get it!” (go and fetch整体上构成时间段)

*由“同时”而引申,while表示的另一个重要的关系是“对比”。

??

until

单独使用:主句谓语动词为延续性动词,表示“到……为止”。

Wait until he comes back.

We’ll stay here till it stops raining.

Until I came back, he was waiting for me at my home.

Not…until: 主句谓语动词为短暂动词,意为“直到……才”。

I didn’t realize how special my mother was until I became an adult.

One will never realize how much and how little he knows until he starts talking.

Ice cream did not reach America until about the middle of the eighteenth century.

I didn’t go to bed until 12 o’clock last night.

He didn’t leave the office until his boss came back.

Not until: 主句倒装

Not until he saw his mother did the little boy smile

It was not until he saw his mother that the little boy smiled. (为上句的强调结构)

一……就……

as soon as, the minute/the moment/the instant, immediately, directly, instantly:

It began to rain as soon as/immediately/the moment I arrived home.

Hardly/scarcely…when, no sooner…than

No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

Hardly/scarcely had I arrived home when it began to rain.

No sooner had we begun having dinner than the doorbell rang.

地点状语从句

通常由where引导

Stay where you are.

After you are finished with the book, put it where it was.

A driver should slow down where there are schools.

The tree of this kind grows favorably where it is wet.

考题

——,work songs often exhibit the song culture of a people in a fundamental from. (TOEFL 2000)

a. They occur where they are

b. Occurring where

c. Where they occur*

d. Where do they occur

I have kept that portrait _____ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London. (96-01 CET-4)

a. which

b. where*

c. whether

d. when

也可由wherever, anywhere, everywhere引导

Wherever he happens to be, Clint can make himself at home.

Everywhere they appeared, there were ovations.

Wherever there is water, air and earth, there is vegetation.

原因状语从句

because

表因果关系的语气最强,用来回答why的问句,所引出的原因往往是听话人所不知道或最感兴趣的。

You want to know why I am leaving? I am leaving because I’m fed up with the job and boss.

My friends dislike me because I’m handsome and successful.

在主句是否定的情况下,because从句的理解有两种情形。

I didn’t attend the meeting because he was present too.

可能有以下歧义:

因为当时也有他出席,所以我没有去参加这个会议。

我出席这次会议并不是因为有他参加。

I didn’t marry her because I lived her.

因为我爱她,所以我决定不跟她结婚。

我并不是因为爱她才和她结婚。

Since

表示人们已知的事实,不须强调的原因,故常译成“既然……”,通常放在句首。

Since Monday is Bob’s birthday, let’s throw him a party.

Since everyone is here, let’s get started.

Since you are free tonight, why not drop in and play chess with me?

考题

You are leaving tomorrow, we can eat dinner together tonight. (99-06 CET-6)

a. For

b. Since

c. Before

d. While

As

As与 since用法差不多,所引出的理由在说话人看来已经很明显,或已为听话人所熟悉而不须用because加以强调。

She didn’t hear us come in as she was asleep.

I left a message as you weren’t there.

As Monday is a national holiday, all government offices will be close.

I have to speak English with them, as the guys I live with don’t know any Chinese.

For

对前面分句的内容加以解释或说明。

The days were short, for it was now December.

It rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.

比较:because it rained last night, the ground is wet this morning.

It must be morning, for the birds are singing.

Pay attention to your enemies, for they are the first to discover your mistakes.

比较:

as, for引导的主从句,重要性相对平等;

because从句则显得比主句重要,强调原因;

since则从句次于主句,重在说明将要做什么事。

目的状语从句

从属连词有:so that, in order that或that等,从句中常含有情态动词。

They carved the words on the stone so that/in order that the future generation should/might remember what they had done.

We climbed high (so) that we might get a better view.

The teacher raised his voice in order that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

*联想省略后的不定式in order to do/so as to do(逻辑主语或相同)或in order for sb to do(逻辑主语不同时)。

All the key words in the article are printed in bold type so as to attract readers’ attention.

We climbed high in order to get a better view.

They carved the words on the stone in order for the future generation to remember what they had done.

The teacher raised his voice in order for the students in the back to hear more clearly.

考题

____ Measure matter we must have units of weight, volume and length. (CET-4)

a. In order

b. In order to*

c. So as

d. So as to

*so as to不可用于句首。因为so本意为“如此”,只有先说了些什么,才谈得上“如此”“怎样”。

Lest, for fear(that), in case: 以免、以防,深怕……

Take an umbrella with you lest it should rain.

People evacuated the building for fear that the wall should collapse.

She cleans the window with great care lest she might break the window.

We had a meeting and talked the matter over face to face, for fear that there should be any misunderstanding.

结果状语从句

so…that, such…that, so (that), such that

a “John Hancock” is a person’s signature. John Hancock was the first person to sign the American “Declaration of Independence”. He signed it so large and bold that now we use his name to refer to anyone’s signature.

Diplomats and crabs are creatures who move in such a way that it is impossible to tell whether they are coming or going.

Such that相当于so 形容词

His anger was such that he lost control of himself.

He anger was so explosive that he lost control of himself.

The weather is such that we can only stay in air-conditioned places.

The weather is so hot that we can only stay in air-conditioned places.

考题

the performance was such ____ the audience was deeply moved. (CET-4)

a. as

b. that*

c. so

d. so that

*省略式为so/such…as to, such as to

He was such a fool as to believe him.

He was so foolish as to believe him.

Her voice was such as to make everyone stare.

so bad as to make everyone stare.

so loud as to make everyone stare.

考题

His story is _____ to arouse our sympathy.

a. such as*

b. so sad

c. too sad

d. so sad as

The windows are ____ small as not to admit much light at all. (CET-4)

a. very

b. as

c. too

d. so*

Would you be _____ do me a favor, please? (CET-4)

a. so kind to

b. kind as to

c. as kind to

d. so kind as to*

so, such的区别

有不定冠词时,两者皆可用,用法不同

such a(an) 形容词 单数可数名词

so 形容词 a(an) 单数可数名词

so beautiful a flower

such a beautiful flower

so nice a day

such a nice day

无冠词时,只用such

such beautiful flowers, such nice days

*so beautiful flowers

such nice weather, such great patience

so great patience

但表数量的形容词前一般用so

so many flowers, so much patience, so much fun, so few cars, so little care

考题

Although apples do not grow during the cold seasons, apple trees must have a such season in order to flourish. (TOEFL)

Recently in the automobile industry, multinational companies have developed to the point where such few cars can be described as having been made entirely in one country. (TOEFL)

考题

the police called off their research for the survivors of the air crash because of ___.

a. such bad weather*

b. so bad

c. such a bad weather

d. too bad a weather

such直接与名词相连, so直接与形容词相连。

Such patience, such a fool, such a day, such weather

So stupid, so excited, so patient


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